Upgrade to remove ads
Western Civ 2 Final Dr Devlin Scofield NWMSU
Terms in this set (49)
Background factors; political discontent - haven't seen the same reforms across Europe; economics - bread prices are skyrocketing, government's job to ensure fair low bread prices but isn't; nationalism. In France; Paris 1848 - group of demonstrators get shot at by panicked soldiers, barricades go up, king flees; conservative reaction - close down workshops, only options are countryside or military, rise up - June Days. In Germany; all talk and no action, no armies, constitutional monarchy, Prussia dominant power, assume other countries will go along with things but they don't, could have been successful if they would have all risen up together at one.
literally means "little Germany". Excludes Austria. Decline caused by the General Slocum fire that killed more than 1,000 German Americans
Otto von Bismarck
alliance between the conservative powers of Europe (Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary. Keeps France diplomatically isolated. Does all he can to keep Germany on the side of the great powers, kept france in the dark- makes sure they don't make any friends. Got replaced in 1890
1870-1871. Lots of bad blood between Germany and France, Napoleon III needs dominating foreign policy over Prussia, Napoleon III wants Prussia to publicly renounce Spanish. Bismarck gets ahold of polite telegram and alters it to provoke France to get a war - Ems telegram - works
"little" belgium, primary crop is rubber, brutal atrocities committed against local people. 1908 belgian parliament confiscates the colonies from Leopold II
Began in 1894. Alfred Dreyfus was wrongfully accused of treason in France. Dreyfus was of Jewish descent. He was sent to Devil's Island where he lived for 5 years. New evidence came to light and activists pressured the government to reopen the case. Dreyfus returned for another trial in 1899 but he was convicted again for 10 years. He was later given a pardon and was set free.
Second Industrial Revolution
emergence of steel, electricity, and chemical industries. Steel- 1856 Henry Bessemer; bessemer process, blowing air through molten iron to get rid of all the impurities. Electricity in homes. Assembly line, cut production from 12 hours to 1.5 hours. Little job satisfaction. Mass production. Public transportation. Zeppelins. Germany biggest beneficiary.
The Blank Check
On July 5, 1914, in Berlin, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany pledges his country's unconditional support for whatever action Austria-Hungary chooses to take in its conflict with Serbia, a long-running rivalry thrown into crisis by the assassination, the previous June 28, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife by a Serbian nationalist during an official visit to Sarajevo, Bosnia (known as the blank check assurance
was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. It led to Constitutional Reform including the establishment of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906
Not technically Russian but was apart of the Bolshevik party. Appointed General Secretary in April 1922. Expelled from religious school when a child. Robbed banks and donated the money to the Bolshevik party. Stacks the deck in his favor, putting people loyal to him in vacant spots within the party. Skillful at getting rid of people who are against him. Took away peasants land and forced them to work on collectively owned farms. Feared outside interference. Creates command economy, governments tell factories what and how much to produce. 5 year plan. Great Purge. Show trials - arrest people and come up with fake charges, force confessions, killed or deported, targeted Stalin's enemies
The Fourteen Points
Created by Woodrow Wilson. Open diplomacy (no secret treaties), freedom of the seas and freedom of trade, the impartial settlement of European colonial rivalries, the return of Alsace and Lorraine to France, and the self determination of nations.
places all blame of the war on Germany, allows countries to blame germany for the war and make them pay. Is resented by Germany.
See parliamentary democracy as weak, blame them for the cause of the caos and post war weakness. Looking towards the future. Italian Fascism - a lot of turnover in governments. Italy didn't get everything they were promised from WWI, Mussolini started out as a socialist, Mussolini responsible, first believing to stay out of WWI but later believing it's better to get involved, this splits the socialist party, Mussolini names his new part Fascists. "Bundle of sticks" - separate weak, together strong. Basic concepts - state is absolute individual relative, parliamentary democracy=weakness, expansionist foreign policy - "second roman empire", community, overcoming barriers, economics - state directed and controlled by industry, revolutionary - want to create a new social order, requires that everyone participate - mass movements, labor and capital should work together for the state, women have a role too, and youth symbol of fascism.
Born in Austria, was sent to military school where he was made fun of for being short and talking funny. Served in the first world war; excellent general with great military tactics. Earned iron cross 1st and 2nd class. Amazing speaker. Ideology - innovative, jewish peril.
German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
On August 23, 1939, representatives from Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union met and signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, which guaranteed that the two countries would not attack each other. By signing this pact, Germany had protected itself from having to fight a two-front war in the soon-to-begin World War II; the Soviet Union was awarded land, including parts of Poland and the Baltic States. The pact was broken when Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union less than two years later, on June 22, 1941.
The Final Solution
Nazi deliberate, systematic plan to exterminate all Jewish people in German-occupied Europe, under the order of Adolf Hitler during WWII
idea to help aid country's reconstruction financially. Made business for the U.S. Rejected by Stalin.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs
In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918-19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its "Gleichschaltung" laws in pursuit of a unitary state
White Man's Burden
"The White Man's Burden" is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. It was originally published in the popular magazine McClure's in 1899, with the subtitle The United States and the Philippine Islands. The poem was originally written for Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, but exchanged for "Recessional"; Kipling changed the text of "Burden" to reflect the subject of American colonization of the Philippines, recently won from Spain in the Spanish-American War.
The Herero is an ethnic group inhabiting parts of Southern Africa. First genocide from 1904-1907 in German south-west africa
a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. She was widely criticised for her militant tactics, and historians disagree about their effectiveness, but her work is recognised as a crucial element in achieving women's suffrage in Britain
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne
The Western Front
was the main theatre of war during World War I. Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front first by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France
The Provisional Government
Russian Empire (1917), following the abdication of the Tsar, was lead by a provisional government formed by members of the State Duma. On September 14 it proclaimed itself as the government of the Russian Republic
May 7, 1915, a year after WWI erupted across Europe, a German U-boat sank the RMS Lusitania, a British ocean liner on its way to England- One of the reasons the US entered WWI
The Weimar Republic
a semi-presidential representative democracy, and emerged in the aftermath of the German Revolution of 1918-19. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the German Reich was written, and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremists (with paramilitaries - both left and right wing) and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War
The First Five Year Plan
USSR list of economic goals created by Joseph Stalin on his policy of socialism- implemented between 1928 & 1932
Began after the Armistice was signed between France and Germany on June 22, 1940. The Vichy Regime was authoritarian. Led by Philippe Petain. The people felt that democracy was bankrupt and allowed the authoritarian rule. They focused on national regeneration. Originally people were okay with this until Petain started allowing the labor conscription of French citizens (they were forced to work in Germany). They started their own SS units called Milice. People could not resist because of what the Germans would do to them and their towns
On June 22, 1941, Germany broke the nonaggression pact they signed with the Russians and invaded the Soviet Union
1848-49, national assembly convened at Frankfurt on May 18, 1848, as a result of the liberal revolution that swept the German states early in 1848. The parliament was called by a preliminary assembly of German liberals in Mar., 1848, and its members were elected by direct manhood suffrage
Count Camillo di Cavour
He was the founder of the original Liberal Party and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, a position he maintained throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy. After the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as the first Prime Minister of Italy; he died after only three months in office, and thus did not live to see Venetia or Rome added to the new Italian nation. 1810-1861
He was blocked by the Constitution and Parliament from running for a second term, so he organized a coup d'état in 1851 and then took the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation. He remains the longest-serving French head of state since the French Revolution
a period of colonial expansion—and its accompanying ideologies—by the European powers, the United States of America and the Empire of Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The period is distinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions
theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals. Now largely discredited, social Darwinism was advocated by Herbert Spencer and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was used to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform
1871 to the outbreak of World War I in around 1914. Occurring during the era of the French Third Republic, it was a period characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity and technological, scientific and cultural innovations. In the climate of the period, especially in Paris, the arts flourished. Many masterpieces of literature, music, theater, and visual art gained recognition. The Belle Époque was named, in retrospect, when it began to be considered a "golden age" in contrast to the horrors of World War I
the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium on 4 August 1914. Field Marshal Alfred von Schlieffen was the Chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891-1906 and in 1905/06 devised a deployment plan for a war-winning offensive, in a one-front war against the French Third Republic
Russian communists. Gained power in 1917. They promised people what they wanted even if they could not deliver. They appealed to workers, soldiers, peasants, and nationalities. They were successful in discrediting their opposition because they were the only party not associated with the pre-war government. When they were in power there were multiple civil wars between many different groups. They enacted a system of terror which included the execution of the royal family and their staff on July 17, 1918
The Home Front
the informal term for the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of their military. Military forces depend on "home front" civilian support services such as factories that build material to support the military front
Treaty of Versailles
France, Great Britain, Italy and the US were involved in writing the treaty. France wanted to eliminate Germany's military threat. Britain wanted to contain Germany but keep them stable. Italy wanted territorial gains. The US (Woodrow Wilson) wanted to form the League of Nations. The treaty placed all of the guilt on Germany. The treaty also disarmed Germany, caused them to pay reparations, made Germany give up 13% of its territory. Returned Alsace and Lorraine to France. Signed on June 28th 1919
German Workers' Party- short-lived political party and forerunner of Nazi Party
also known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, was a man-made famine in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1932 and 1933 that killed an estimated 2.5-7.5 million Ukrainians, with millions more counted in demographic estimates
Beer Hall Putsch
a failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during 8-9 November 1923. About two thousand men marched to the centre of Munich, where they confronted the police, which resulted in the death of 16 Nazis and four policemen. Hitler himself was wounded
antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany. They were introduced on 15 September 1935 by the Reichstag at a special meeting convened at the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party. The two laws were the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, which forbade marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews & germans
Groups of German police during WWII who targeted potential resistance and were responsible for mass murder. The killings were close up. They were "ordinary men" and this took a toll on them. This led to finding new ways to kill more efficiently. In the 1940s
Founded as a concentration camp in 1940. Experiments in gassing led to the use of Zyklon B. Killing reached a factory like efficiency there was even a manual for the process. There were three camps, Auschwitz I (a work camp), Auschwitz-Birkenau (the death camp), Auschwitz III (Buna (also a work camp)
June 22, 1948 - May 12, 1949. Largest airlift in history. Occurred when Stalin blocked all access to Berlin. Made Berlin the center of Cold War drama. Planes were taking off and landing every 90 seconds bringing supplies such as food to Berlin and throwing them out of the planes so the goods parachuted down to the city. Stalin decides it is no longer worth it and drops the blockade
the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991 when the party was dissolved. He served as the country's head of state from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991. Erected the Berlin Wall
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP World History: Chapters 29 & 30
Western Civ Final Terms
Review for World History Final (mr.sandler)
History Final Part One
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Applied Futures and Options Soman NWMSU Final
Sales and Sales Management EXAM 1
Applied Futures Midterm 1
Ag Marketing Ch. 2
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Science & Religion Exam
Pers Finance 1
Social Studies ch. 4