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Chapter 11: Mediterranean Society- The Roman Phase
Roman Republic, Roman Empire, Judaism, Christianity
Terms in this set (73)
Northern Italian tribe that dominated Rome in its early history
Dominate Italy 8th-5th centuries
Originally from Anatolia
Colonized Roman regions
Society declines late 6th c. BCE
Greek maritime attacks
Celtic invasions from north
Romulus and Remus
founded Rome in 753 BC
kingdom of Rome
On Tiber River, monarchy, easy access to Mediterranean but not on coast, Etruscan
Monarchy through 7th-6th c. BCE
-Streets, temples, public buildings
Major center of trade routes
depose last Etruscan king in 509 BC, replace monarchy with aristocratic republic, Roman forum at heart of city
political and civic center with temples and public buildings
two consuls: civil and military (elected by assembly dominated by patricians), Senate advice consuls; Senate and consuls represent patricians
power by plebeians to intervene and veto decisions, dominated Roman politics
Rome conflict with Carthage over Sicily for grain to finance more expansion, Romans win; conflict with Hellenistic realms when armies dispatched to protect Roman citizens from pirates
support land redistribution, assassinated
consul, advocate land redistribution, loyal (to army not state) army of rural and urban poor; seize Rome in 87 BC
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
support from aristocratic class; seize Rome in 83 BC, 5 year reign of terror
large plantations, pressure small farmers
Nephew of Marius
Escapes Sulla's terror
-Relatively young, well-timed trip abroad
The First Triumvirate
Rises in popularity
-Public spectacles, victories in Gaul
Attacks Rome 49 BCE
Names self Dictator for life in 46 BCE
A month after Caesar's death, his eighteen year-old grand-nephew, Gaius Octavianus, to be known as Octavian, was named as Caesar's heir.
Marc Antony, a general and an ally of Caesar's considered himself Caesar's political heir.
Octavian and Antony, along with Lepidus, who was Caesar's second in command, formed the Second Triumvirate.
Roman Peace, under Augustus, Roman roads, postal system
Twelve Tables, c. 450 BCE
Adapted to diverse populations under Roman Rule
-Innocent until proven guilty
-Right to challenge accusers in court
latifundia focused on specialized production, Mediterranean trade (Roman navy keep seas largely free of pirates), "Mare nostrum"
city of Rome
statues, pools, fountains, arches, temples, stadiums,
first used, stadiums (chariot races), smphitheaters
pater familias (eldest male of family rule), women influential in families, supervise businesses and wealthy estates, newly rich classes due to trade
"bread and circuses"
to keep masses content
2nd c. CE: estimated at 1/3 of Empire population
-Customary manumission at age 30
Agricultural work, quarries, mines
Revolt under Spartacus, 73 BCE
Jupiter = principal god, Roman mythology, household gods, a few Etruscan gods, spread by roads
Greek influence: stoicism (moral standards based on nature and reason)
writer on Stoicism
religions of salvation
appeal to masses, promised afterlife
From Zoroastrian myth: god of Sun, light
Roman version emphasizes strength, courage, discipline
Women not admitted into cult
Appealed to military
Cult of Isis also popular
Cult of Isis
most popular Mediterranean religion before Christianity
monotheistic, Yahweh = only god, Essenes (sect), defeated in Jewish War (66-70 CE)
Jesus of Nazareth
Christians' savior, Jewish teacher, love for human beings, popular
Romans fear instigation of rebellion
Crucifixion in early 30s CE (Romans execute him), became "Christ"
Jews' Hebrew scriptures
accounts of Jesus' life, outlines Christian teachings
Paul of Tarsus
principal figure in spread of Christianity*, executed by Roman emperor
Extends teachings far beyond Jewish circles
Traveled widely throughout the Roman Empire
Spiritual equality of the sexes
Appeal to lower classes, urban population, women
Influence faith in Mediterranean* by 200s CE
Orthodox and Catholic believers describe Christian worship in terms of the seven sacraments or "mysteries."
These include baptism, the Eucharist (communion), matrimony, Holy Orders, confirmation, penance and reconciliation, and the Anointing of the Sick.
Priests conducted local services and ceremonies.
Above the priests were bishops who headed the church in each major city.
Bishops in Rome, Antioch, Constantinople, Alexandria and Jerusalem became known as patriarchs.
Over time the patriarch of Rome took the title pope, claiming to be supreme over the patriarchs.
Establishment of Rome
Aeneas - Trojan refugee
-Legend of Romulus and Remus
Rome Founded 753 BCE
Indo-European migrants c. 2000 BCE
Bronze c. 1800 BCE, Iron c. 900 BCE
The Rape of the Sabine Women
The Rape is supposed to have occurred in the early history of Rome, shortly after its foundation by Romulus and his mostly male followers.
Seeking wives in order to found families, the Romans negotiated unsuccessfully with the Sabines,
who populated the area.
Fearing the emergence of a rival society, the Sabines refused to allow their women to marry the Romans; consequently, the Romans planned to abduct Sabine women.
From the Etruscans the Romans...
Borrowed vase styles and the use of bronze.
Borrowed religious practices, including reading the future by examining the livers of sacrificed animals.
Acquired a twelve-month calendar, and the use of a personal first name that through Rome was to become the first name and surname commonly used among Europeans.
Learned what Etruscans had learned from the Greeks: the growing of grapes and olives.
Used an Etruscan adaptation of the Greek alphabet.
Acquired a familiarity with military organization that included a unit called a legion, which warred in phalanx positions like Greek hoplites.
The Roman Republic, 509 BC to 27 BC
In place of the monarchy, the Romans established a republic, named from the Latin phrase res publica, which means "public affairs."
A republic is a form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state. In the Roman republic, only adult male citizens were allowed to vote. Only free-born adult male landowners were citizens.
There were three main governing bodies that made up the republic: the Senate, the magistrates, and the assemblies.
Establishment of the Roman
509 BCE Romans overthrow last Etruscan king
Roman Forum built
Executive: 2 consuls, one year terms
Senate, made up of aristocrats, advised consuls and ratified major decisions
Major class conflict 5th c. BCE
Plebeians allowed to elect tribunes for representation
Rights expanded through 3rd c. BCE
Constitution allowed for dictators to be appointed in times crises
Expansion of the Republic
Took over iron industry 5th-4th c. BCE
Expansion via military threat and incentives
The Punic Wars
Conflict with Carthage, 264-164 BCE
Three major wars over Sicilian grain supply
Later conflict with declining Hellenistic Empires
Rome dominates Mediterranean by middle of 2nd C. BCE
The Second Punic War
Began in 218 BC with Carthage's attack on Saguntum.
Hannibal sent armies to Sicily and Italy by sea. For two and a half years in Italy, Hannibal produced victory after victory. He burned and destroyed as he went, and not one Italian city joined him against Rome.
To attempt to turn the tables, the Roman general Scipio attacked the Carthaginians at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC, leading to Hannibal's defeat.
The Third Punic War
The Romans returned to Carthage in 149 BC to begin the Third Punic War and destroy the city, despite the fact that the Carthaginians had offered three hundred of its leading citizens as slaves.
In the spring of 146, Roman soldiers were finally able to penetrate Carthage's walls.
Amid suicides and carnage, the Romans demolished and burned the city. They carried off survivors, selling the woman and children into slavery and throwing the men into prison, where they were to perish.
Then the Romans spread salt across what had been Carthage's farmlands, and Carthage was no more.
Imperial Expansion and Domestic Problems
-Development of large plantations - latifundia
-Unfair competition for smaller landholders
The Gracchi Brothers
Tiberius and Gaius
Attempted to limit land holdings of aristocrats
Development of private armies made up of landless peasants
-Gaius Marius (with reformers)
-Lucius Cornelius Sulla (with aristocrats)
87 BCE Gaius Marius takes Rome
Lucius Cornelius Sulla drives Marius out 83 BCE.
5 year reign of terror follows, resulting in the murder or execution of up to 10,000.
Centralized military, governance under personal control
Redistribution of land to war veterans, other allies
Major building projects reduce urban unemployment
Extended citizenship to provinces
Aristocrats threatened, assassinate Caesar in 44 BCE
Antony & Octavian divided up the empire: Antony the east, Octavian the west.
Marc Antony joined his ally and lover Clepoatra Egypt.
Antony named Cleopatra's son by Caesar Caesarion.
Octavian persuaded the Senate to declare war on Antony & Cleopatra, arguing that Antony was trying to control Rome from Egypt
Civil conflict follows death of Caesar
Power belongs to Octavian
Octavian defeats Mark Antony & Cleopatra
Titled himself Princeps, which is Latin for "first citizen."
Takes title Augustus 27 BCE
Marks the official end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.
Monarchy disguised as a republic
Increasing centralization of political, military power
Death in 14 CE
Expansion and Integration of Empire
Roman occupation of increasingly remote areas
-Gaul, Germany, Britain, Spain
Coordination of crop production, transport of natural resources
Developed infrastructure, cities emerge
Pax Romana: "Roman Peace"
Facilitated trade, communication
-Flat paving stones
Commercial Agriculture and Trade
Latifundia: production for export
Regional specialization increases
Integration of Empire-wide economy
Mediterranean Sea: Mare Nostrum, "our sea"
large Roman estate found in the provinces; often produced grain for Rome.
specializing in agriculture destined for export
The City of Rome
-Taxes, tribute, spoils, commerce
Massive construction projects
-Statuary, monumental architecture, aqueducts
Public Works During the Republic
The Appian Way - was the most important ancient Roman road. It connected Rome to southeast Italy.
Aqueducts were built to supply water to cities and industrial sites. These aqueducts were among the greatest engineering feats of the ancient world, and set a standard not equaled for over a thousand years after the fall of Rome. Many cities still maintain and use the ancient aqueducts for their water supply even today.
The Cloaca Maxima
One of the world's earliest sewage systems.
The name literally means Greatest Sewer. Was built using of Etruscan engineers and large amounts of semi-forced labor from the poorer classes of Roman citizens.
The centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome.
It is almost 210 feet high and looks down on one side upon the Roman Forum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus
Family and Society
Pater Familias: "father of the family"
-Right to arrange marriages, sell children into slavery
Women not allowed to inherit property
Wealth and Social Change
Newly rich challenge aristocracy
Yet poor class increasing in size
Distraction: "Bread and Circuses"
Absorption of gods from other cultures
-The supreme god of the Romans was Jupiter, a god of sunshine, rain, laws, social order and most importantly Rome's protector.
-Jupiter held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon.
-He was the patron deity of the Roman state, in charge of laws and social order.
Tribune whose call for land reform led to his
The Vestal Virgins
The earliest Romans believed in a goddess of fire called Vesta.
One of the Vestal's sacred duties was to keep alive the Vesta "fire of Rome", for if it were to be extinguished, it would bring great evil to Rome and its people.
Also practiced augury, the belief that present events could be observed and interpreted to reveal future events.
Vestals served for thirty years, ten as students, ten in service, and ten as teachers, after which they could marry if they chose.
the Roman god of war
As the legendary father of its founder, Romulus, it was believed that all Romans were descended of Mars
Saturn was a major Roman deity of agriculture and harvest.
According to the mythology Saturn seizes power, castrating and overthrowing his father Uranus.
However, it was foretold that one day a mighty son of Saturn would in turn overthrow him, and Saturn devoured all of his children when they were born to prevent this.
Saturn's wife, Ops, hid her sixth child on the island of Crete.
That son, Jupiter, later overthrew Saturn, becoming the new supreme ruler of the cosmos.
Venus, the daughter of Jupiter, was a goddess of vegetation, a bringer of good fortune and victory and the protector of feminine chastity.
Venus is the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite.
By the time of Julius Caesar she would be a mother goddess: "Mother Venus".
Cicero and Stoicism
Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-46 BCE)
Major orator, writer
Influenced by Greek thought
Proponent of Stoicism
Judaism in Early Rome
Jewish monotheism at odds with most ancient cultures.
Refusal to recognize state gods
Repeated Jewish rebellions
Romans finally crush Jewish self-governance in Jewish Wars (66-70 CE) which destroyed all but the western wall of the Second Temple. This became known as the Wailing Wall.
In 135 CE the Roman army, under the emperor Hadrian, brutally put down the last Jewish revolt, banning all Jews from the city of Jerusalem.
Lead to the Jewish Diaspora, the scattering of Jews to build communities outside Jerusalem
Messianic Jewish Cult
Dead Sea Scrolls
Jesus' Early Followers
Belief in Jesus' resurrection, divine nature
Title Christ: "Anointed One"
Teachings recorded in New Testament
Early Christian Communities
Local leaders: Bishops
Regional variation in doctrine and ritual
-Nature of resurrection
-Role of women
Gradual acceptance of core texts
Growth of Early Christianity
Yet dramatic expansion of Christianity
Especially with dispossessed, disenfranchised classes
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