29 terms

Stress & Coping Exam2

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Physiological Correlates of the Relaxation Response
1. Decreased O2 consumption
2. Decreased, regular respiratory rate
3. Decreased, regular heart rate
4. Slower brain waves (alpha and beta)
5. Decreased blood pressure
6. Decreased muscle tension
7. Increased peripheral skin temperature
8. Decreased sweat glande activity
Problem Focused Coping
targets the causes of stress in practical ways which tackles the problem or stressful situation that is causing stress, consequently directly reducing the stress.
Problem focused strategies aim to remove or reduce the cause of the stressor.
Emotion Focused Coping
involves trying to reduce the negative emotional responses associated with stress such as embarrassment, fear, anxiety, depression, excitement and frustration. This may be the only realistic option when the source of stress is outside the person's control.

Drug therapy can be seen as emotion focused coping as it focuses on the arousal caused by stress not the problem.

May lead to a reduction in perceived control (maladaptive).
Adaptive vs. Maladaptive
Adaptive coping reduces stress, while maladaptive increases stress.
Deliberate vs. scripted coping
The individual's reaction to stressful events, including his/her own temporary distresses, deliberate or scripted. If the individual reacts with
little awareness or deliberate choice, he/she would probably behave with scripted coping responses. Many people cope in the same ways as their
parents without realizing it, handling stressful events much like they did as children. Others respond with thoughtfulness and intention - with deliberate coping responses (Billings & Moos, 1981; Holroyd &Lazarus,
1982; Krohne, 1986).
dysponesis (disˈ·p·nēˑ·sis),n
condition named by chiropractors to describe misdirected physical reactions to various stimuli (i.e., emotions, bodily sensations, environmental events, and thoughts) and the effects of these reactions throughout the body.
Residual Muscle Tension
Results from anxiety similar to the "pre-start phenomenon". Progressive relaxation by Jacobson controls/relaxes
Benson's 4 general requirements for eliciting the Relaxation Response
1. A Quiet environment
2. A comfortable position
3. Something to focus on
4. Passive volition
Relaxation Response: General effects of regular practice
• Reduce residual muscle tension
• lower baseline arousal
• Decrease reactivity
• Recover faster from stress
• Inducing relaxation easier and faster.
Contraindication
something (as a symptom or condition) that makes a particular treatment or procedure inadvisable
Relaxation induced anxiety
...
Adjunct method
An optional form of identifying biofeedback. Adjunct means: a thing added to something else as a supplementary rather than an essential part.
Describe Diaphragmatic Breathing
Breaths taken with the entire, round surface of the diaphragm.
Primary advantage/value of biofeedback
Develop self-regulation skills
Types of biofeedback
*EMG: Muscle Tension
*ST: Skin Temperature
*GSR: Sweat Gland activity
*EEG: Brain Wave patterns
*HR: Heart Rate
*BP: Blood Pressure
Edmund Jacobson's theoretical basis for Progressive Relaxation
1. Mind is NOT just the brain, but the entire multi-directional system. 2. Muscle tension activates other responses. Muscles are easier to control directly, so ... relaxing muscles relaxes the whole system.
Why did Jacobson call his method "Progressive Relaxation"?
...
An ultimate goal of Jacobson's Progressive Relaxation
Differential Relaxation: Automatic detecting and regulating muscles.
Differential Relaxation
The ultimate goal of Jacobson's Progressive Relaxation: Automatic detecting and regulating muscles.
The primary differences between Jacobson's P.R. and modifications/alternatives
Tensing muscles allows practitioners to easily see the difference b/t tense and relaxed. But it takes time for muscles to fully relax.
1. More muscles are tensed per session
2. There is more verbal input
3. May be release only, w/o tension
4. CHEAPER, shorter sessions. Wolpe condensed P.R.
Benefits of "Passive" or "Release only" P.R.
1. Contracted muscles take time to relax.
2. Equally effective as longer versions
3. Avoids potential over-tensing and less actual relaxation.
4 suggestions focused on 4 physiological processes delineate the initial practices of Schultz and Luthe's Autogenic Training/Therapy.
Heaviness <--> Muscle Relaxing
Warmth <--> Peripheral vasodilation
Heart beat <--> Decrease rate & output; Regular rhythm
Breathing <--> Diaphragmatic
Autogenic discharge
physical sensations such as muscle twitching, numbness, and perhaps some emotional responses released by unconscious mind from autogenic sessions.
Steps in Wolpe's Systematic Desensitization procedure.
1. Preparation
a. learn & practice P.R.
b. create and memorize: fear/desensitization hierarchy.
2. Process
a. Induce Relaxation
b. Imagine going step by step through your heirarchy
c. When stressed: Retreat, relax, recover, repeat until desensitized.
Systematic Desensitization practitioners sometimes include this step:
Practicing it in real life trials.
Strategies for Problem Focused Coping
1. Taking Control - this response involves changing the relationship between yourself and the source of stress. Examples: escaping from the stress or removing the stress.
2. Information Seeking - the most rational action. This involves the individual trying to understand the situation (e.g. using the internet) and putting into place cognitive strategies to avoid it in future. Information seeking is a cognitive response to stress.
3. Evaluating the pros and cons of different options for dealing with the stressor.
Strategies for Emotion Focused Coping
Keeping yourself busy to take your mind off the issue
Letting off steam to other people
Praying for guidance and strength
Ignoring the problem in the hope that it will go away
Distracting yourself (e.g. TV, eating)
Building yourself up to expect the worse
physiological targets
*EMG: Muscle Tension
*ST: Skin Temperature
*GSR: Sweat Gland activity
*EEG: Brain Wave patterns
*HR: Heart Rate
*BP: Blood Pressure
biofeedback equipment
Oscilloscope, thermometer, sphygmomnanometer, GSR monitor, EEG test