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Terms in this set (61)
is the network of relationships based on genealogical (biological) or social ties and modeled on the relationships of parentage and siblingship.
A universal phenomenon
KIN TYPE NOTATION
anthropology has a notation system for recording kinship relations. Using this notation makes it possible to describe kinship in a concise and readable form. This is a simple notation and once you learn it you can record any kinship relationship.
KIN TYPE NOTATION:
H HUSBANDThese kin types can be combined to describe other kinship relations.
MBS= MOTHER'S BROTHER'S SON
FFF= FATHER'S FATHER'S FATHER
ZH= SISTER'S HUSBAND
the individual from whose viewpoint kinship is being calculated or described
LINEAL RELATIVES OR LINEALS
any of ego's ancestors or descendants, e.g., ego's M; F; FM; MMM; S; D; SDS. Lineal relatives are people who are in a direct line from ego, up or down.
COLLATERAL RELATIVES OR COLLATERALS
: relatives to whom ego is linked by a sibling tie (excluding affines), e.g., ego's Z; B; MBS; MZS; FZD; FZS; ZD; BD; BSDC.
are a kind of collateral relative and come in two varieties in kinship calculation, cross cousins and parallel cousins
the child of ego's mother's brother or of ego's father's sister. They are called cross cousins because the individuals in the parental generation [father and his sister or mother and her brother] who link the cousins are of the opposite or cross sex.
the child of ego's mother's sister or of ego's father's brother. They are called parallel cousins because the individuals in the parental generation [father and his brother or mother and her sister] who link the cousins are of the same or parallel sex
AFFINAL RELATIVES OR AFFINES
relatives to whom ego is linked by a marriage tie; what we think of as "in-laws," e.g., BW; WZ; WM; FZH.
a social unit composed of people who believe they are descended from a common ancestor (the apical ancestor). Descent groups are corporate in that the group continues despite changes in personnel (it exists in perpetuity) and its members share certain rights and obligations towards the group estate.
a descent group whose members demonstrate their descent from a common ancestor (the apical ancestor); i.e., members can name their links to the common ancestor.
a descent group whose members stipulate their descent from a common ancestor; i.e., members can not demonstrate all the links that take them back to a common ancestor, but simply state that they are descendants of that apical ancestor. If a society has both lineages and clans, clans are more inclusive. Why?
descent groups have rules that determine who is a member and who isn't a member of the descent group. Descent groups, by virtue of these rules, always exclude some people while including others.
UNILINEAL DESCENT RULE
if membership in the descent group is passed on only in one line, either the maternal or the paternal line, membership is based on a unilineal rule. Membership in unilineal descent groups is ascribed, that is, an individual becomes a member at birth and has no choice or control over that membership. By virtue of being the child of a particular parent an individual automatically becomes a member of a particular descent group and remains a member for life.
a unilineal descent rule that defines as members of the descent group only the children of females of the group.
In a matrilineal descent system, the children of brothers and sisters are members of different descent groups. A woman's children belong to the same matrilineal descent group as their mother (and her brother), while her brother's children belong to their mother's descent group. So, in a matrilineal system a man's own children never belong to his descent group, but his sister's children do.
a unilineal descent rule that defines as members of the descent group only the children of males of the group.
In a patrilineal system, a man's own children belong to the same patrilineal descent group as their father (and his sister) while his sister's children belong to their father's descent group. So, in a patrilineal system a woman's own children never belong to her descent group, but her brother's children do.
a non-unilineal descent rule that permits individuals to choose the descent group to which they will belong, either their mother's or their father's. Membership is not ascribed at birth and can be changed within the individual's life
BILATERAL KINSHIP CALCULATION
a system of reckoning kin in which ego is considered to be equally related to two (bi) sides (lateral) of her/his family, related equally to both mother's and father's relatives. Americans reckon kinship bilaterally; not everyone does. The child of Mary Smith and John Jones is considered equally related to the Smiths and the Joneses. We do tend to transmit surnames along male lines, although this is changing somewhat
an economically interdependent, relatively small kinship group whose members are related by ties of blood or affinity (marriage).
the family consisting of parents and their unmarried children
FAMILY OF ORIENTATION
the nuclear family in which an individual grows up
FAMILY OF PROCREATION
the nuclear family an individual establishes through marriage
a family that can include siblings and their spouses and children (a collateral family) or three or more generations of kin and their spouses (an extended family).
a family headed by a woman, in which the important ties are between and among women and their children; there is no permanently resident father-husband
the socially recognized father of a child (not necessarily the genitor).
the biological father of a child (not necessarily the pater)
a cultural rule that requires individuals to marry outside of their own group
a cultural rule that requires individuals to marry within their own group.
marriage involving one man and one woman.
POLYGAMY OR PLURAL MARRIAGE
marriage involving multiple spouses. There are two kinds of polygamy
marriage of one man to more than one woman. If the multiple wives are sisters this is called SORORAL POLYGYNY.
marriage of one woman to more than one man. If the multiple husbands are brothers this is called FRATERNAL POLYANDRY.
a postmarital residence rule in which the newly married couple should establish a new residence apart from that of the family of either the wife or the husband.
UXORILOCALITY (KOTTAK'S "MATRILOCALITY") RULE
a postmarital residence rule in which that the newly married couple should live with or near the wife's family or kinship group.
VIRILOCALITY (KOTTAK'S "PATRILOCALITY") RULE
a postmarital residence rule in which the newly married couple should live with or near the husband's family or kinship group
a postmarital residence rule in which the newly married couple should live with or near the husband's mother's brother.
a postmarital residence rule in which the newly married couple should alternate residence between the wife's and the husband's family or kinship group.
a postmarital residence rule in which the newly married couple should choose to live with or near either the wife's or the husband's family or kinship group.
BRIDEWEALTH, BRIDE PRICE OR PROGENY PRICE
a payment made by a man's group to a woman's family or larger kin group in compensation for the woman's productive and reproductive abilities, which are lost to her group and gained by his. Also legitimates children as members of his group.
service (labor) performed by a man for his wife's family or larger kin group.
wealth transferred by a woman's family or larger kin group to her and her husband at the time of marriage.
when a man dies his brother is expected to marry the surviving widow. The descent group provides another descent group member as a husband to replace the one who has died.
when a woman dies her sister is expected to marry the surviving widower. The descent group provides another descent group member as a wife to replace the one who has died
the process by which a community's decisions are made, rules for group behavior are established, competition for positions of leadership is regulated, and the disruptive effects of disputes are minimized.
a small sociopolitical unit composed of people related through kinship (biological or fictive) and marriage, usually involved in a h-g strategy.
no differential access to strategic resources and/ or prestige, except on the basis of age, sex, and personal abilities
the ability to organize and control people, materials, and territory
sanctioned power, i.e., power that people recognize as legitimate
a sociopolitical unit with a mechanism for integration of local level units at a higher, multilocal level for a common purpose, usually involved in a food producing strategy and usually organized in descent groups.
BIG MAN( MELANESIA, HIGHLAND NEW GUINEA)
regional political leader whose status is achieved and who acts as a center in a redistribution system.
a position gained through personal effort and qualities.
a position gained through qualities over which a person has no control, e.g., age, sex, birth order.
SOCIOPOLITICAL UNIT DISTINGUISHED BY A PERMANENT CENTRAL POLITICAL AGENCY; INTERMEDIATE BETWEEN THE TRIBE AND THE STATE AND STILL KIN BASED BUT WITH DIFFERENTIAL ACCESS TO RESOURCES.
A PERMANENT POSITION IN THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE THAT HAS TO BE FILLED.
A RULE OF INHERITANCE BY WHICH THE ELDEST (FIRST) CHILD BECOMES THE HEIR
INDEPENDENT SOCIOPOLITICAL UNIT BASED ON CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT AND CHARACTERIZED BY SOCIOECONOMIC STRATIFICATION, TRANSCENDING KINSHIP.
SOCIOPOLITICAL SYSTEMS IN WHICH GROUPS OF PEOPLE SHARE SIMILAR ACCESS TO STRATEGIC RESOURCES, BASED ON THEIR SHARED MEMBERSHIP IN A PARTICULAR CLASS OR CASTE. HIGHER LEVEL CLASSES OR CASTES CONTROL THE ACCESS OF LOWER LEVEL ONES.
SUPERORDINATE STRATUM (ELITES)
MEMBERS ENJOY PRIVILEGED ACCESS TO PRESTIGE AND STRATEGIC RESOURCES
SUBORDINATE STRATUM (NON-ELITES)
MEMBERS' ACCESS TO PRESTIGE AND STRATEGIC RESOURCES IS LIMITED BY SUPERORDINATES
FRIED'S MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE
1) MAINTENANCE OF GENERAL ORDER.
A. SUPPRESSION OF INTERNAL DISORDER, B. DEFENSE OF THE STATE AGAINST EXTERNAL THREAT
C. CONTROL OF POPULATION.
2)MAINTENANCE OF THE STRATIFIED ORDER.
SPECIAL PURPOSE SUBSYSTEMS OF STATES
1) POPULATION CONTROL
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