If one is examining a blood smear from a patient with a parasitic worm infection, which of the following leukocytes would be found in increased numbers (as opposed to a blood smear from a normal patient NOT infected with worms)?
basophils monocytes eosinophils lymphocytes
What complement result involves the use of phagocytes?
Chemotaxis Opsonization Chemotaxis and opsonization Cytolysis
Chemotaxis and opsonization
If a person could not form C2, which result of complement would be affected?
Cytolysis, chemotaxis, inflammation, and opsonization Chemotaxis and inflammation Cytolysis Opsonization
Cytolysis, chemotaxis, inflammation, and opsonization
If a person lacked the ability to form C5, what result of complement could not occur?
Chemotaxis Cytolysis Opsonization
Which complement protein is used as an opsonin?
C3b C5b C7 C4a C3a C2a
How does cytolysis occur via the complement pathway?
Stimulation of the inflammatory response Formation of the MAC in invading cells, killing them Disrupting cell wall of pathogens Triggering the release of histamine
Formation of the MAC in invading cells, killing them
Which of the following are best described as short chains of amino acids that are very stable and can have a variety of different antimicrobial activities, such as forming pores in bacterial plasma membranes and inhibiting cell wall synthesis?
Both the innate and adaptive defenses of the immune system work to prevent
colonization by pathogens. disease. penetration by invading pathogens. the penetration and colonization by pathogens, and the diseases they cause.
the penetration and colonization by pathogens, and the diseases they cause.
First line defenses have what aspect in common with each other? They recognize specific pathogens. They involve unique cells that attack invading pathogens. They are physical barriers against invading pathogens. They involve the production of antibodies.
They are physical barriers against invading pathogens.
What does the plasma membrane of a phagocyte attach to on a microorganism?
Lysosomes Pseudopods Phagosomes Glycoproteins
What is the role of opsonins?
They aid in the formation of the phagolysosome. They create "handles" that make it easier for the pseudopods of phagocytes to attach to the microbe invader. They are present on the surface of phagocytes. They attract phagocytes to the location of infection.
They create "handles" that make it easier for the pseudopods of phagocytes to attach to the microbe invader.
What is a phagolysosome?
A protein that covers the surface of an invading microbe, making it easier for the phagocyte to ingest. A vesicle containing only an engulfed invading microorganism. A vesicle containing only digestive enzymes and other antimicrobial compounds. The structure that results from the fusion of a phagosome and a lysosome.
The structure that results from the fusion of a phagosome and a lysosome.
If a person turns their ankle, how would one determine if damage to the tissue in the ankle has occurred?
The ankle is very warm to the touch. The ankle is red, swollen, and warm to the touch. The ankle is red. The ankle swells.
The ankle is red, swollen, and warm to the touch.
Which of the following statements concerning phagocytosis is true?
Phagocytes ingest microorganisms by using protein transporters that are specific for the bacteria. Phagocytes cannot ingest microorganisms unless they are coated with antibodies. Bacteria are digested when the phagosome fuses with a lysosome. Adherence always requires opsonization.
Bacteria are digested when the phagosome fuses with a lysosome.
Which of the following statements about beta interferon is true?
It is a protein that specifically degrades viral RNA. It is produced only in response to infection with the hepatitis B virus. It acts as a signal that induces uninfected cells to produce antiviral proteins. It induces neutrophils and macrophages to kill bacteria.
It acts as a signal that induces uninfected cells to produce antiviral proteins.
Which of the following statements about innate immunity is true?
The innate immune response does not have a mechanism for detecting invading microorganisms. It is activated only in response to tissue damage or a signal from an infected cell. It involves the activity of B and T cells. Innate immunity is present at birth. Innate immunity involves specific recognition of microorganisms via a memory response.
Innate immunity is present at birth.
Activation of C3 results in __________.
release of histamine and other pro-inflammatory chemicals enhancement of phagocytosis via opsonization formation of a membrane attack complex (MAC), which causes cytolysis of bacteria all of these