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Mucous membranes are a part of

innate defense.

According to the animation, B cells interact directly with

helper T cells.

Which of the following defense systems would be involved in fighting a viral pathogen?

T lymphocytes

According to the animation, antibodies interact with which innate defenses?

Phagocytosis and the complement system

Which cells directly attack abnormal cells in the body?

Cytotoxic T cells

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen of humans. After being ingested by a macrophage, it prevents formation of the ___________ by preventing fusion of the phagosome with the ___________________.

phagolysosome, lysosome

In which intracellular compartment would you expect most of the digestive enzymes involved in pathogen destruction to be found?


In macrophages and dendritic cells (so-called antigen-presenting cells) some small parts of the phagocytosed particle are presented to other cells of the immune system. If you were to draw an arrow leading to "antigen presentation" as described above, from which word would it extend?


If one is examining a blood smear from a patient with a parasitic worm infection, which of the following leukocytes would be found in increased numbers (as opposed to a blood smear from a normal patient NOT infected with worms)?


What direct effect do histamines and leukotrienes have on capillaries?

They allow capillary walls to open and become leaky.

Diapedesis is

the migration of phagocytes through blood vessels to the site of tissue damage.

Why is vasodilation important to tissue repair?

It allows for an increased delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and phagocytes to the site of damage.

Pus is comprised of

dead phagocytes.

Which of the following can release histamines?

Cells from damaged tissues and the complement pathway

Which of the complement pathways employs properdin?

Alternative pathway

In the classical pathway, which of the following directly activates cellular responses?

C3a, C5a, and C5bC6C7

Antibodies from cellular immune responses are used in

the classical pathway.

Which of the complement pathways was discovered first?

They act as opsonins for phagocytosis, they attach to carbohydrates on some bacterial and viral surfaces, and they activate C2 and C4.

How does cytolysis occur via the complement pathway?

Formation of the MAC in invading cells, killing them

Which complement protein is used as an opsonin?


If a person lacked the ability to form C5, what result of complement could not occur?


If a person could not form C2, which result of complement would be affected?

Cytolysis, chemotaxis, inflammation, and opsonization

What complement result involves the use of phagocytes?

Chemotaxis and opsonization

What complement result involves the use of phagocytes?

Chemotaxis and opsonization

Which of the following is an event that ultimately results in activation of complement C3 by splitting it into C3a and C3b?

interaction of mannose-binding lectin with mannose molecules on a bacterium

Which of the following are best described as short chains of amino acids that are very stable and can have a variety of different antimicrobial activities, such as forming pores in bacterial plasma membranes and inhibiting cell wall synthesis?

antimicrobial peptides

________________ is/are always present in an individual's blood. However, in the absence of infection, it is in an inactive form.


You note that the body temperature of one of your patients is starting to increase. As a result, you can infer that all of the following may be occurring in this patient EXCEPT __________.

dilation of blood vessels

Which statement regarding the lymphatic system is true?

Lymphatic capillaries possess one-way valves. These valves permit the uptake of fluid from the body but do not allow the fluid to flow back out of the capillaries into the intracellular spaces.

A response that is uniquely directed against pathogenic Bordetella pertussis would involve what component?


First line defenses have what aspect in common with each other?

They are physical barriers against invading pathogens.

Both the innate and adaptive defenses of the immune system work to prevent

the penetration and colonization by pathogens, and the diseases they cause.

If a new bacterial pathogen entered a human body through an accidental needle stick, the first cell that would try to kill the pathogen would likely be

a phagocyte.

What does the plasma membrane of a phagocyte attach to on a microorganism?


The process by which a phagocyte moves toward a chemical signal at the site of an infection is called


Which of the following phagocytic processes occurs last in the sequence?


What is the role of opsonins?

They create "handles" that make it easier for the pseudopods of phagocytes to attach to the microbe invader.

What is a phagolysosome?

The structure that results from the fusion of a phagosome and a lysosome.

How is Streptococcus pneumoniae able to avoid destruction by a phagocyte?

Their capsules make them "slippery" to phagocytes.

Which microorganism requires the low pH inside a phagolysosome in order to reproduce?

Coxiella burnetii

Which of the following microorganisms use M protein to avoid destruction of a phagocyte?

Streptococcus pyogenes

Phagocytosis is defined as

the ingestion of solid material by a eukaryotic cell.

How is phagocytosis in the immune system different from protozoan phagocytosis?

Protozoan phagocytosis is used for feeding; phagocytosis by immune cells is used to fight infection.

An inflammatory response would result from which of the following?

A jellyfish sting

If a person turns their ankle, how would one determine if damage to the tissue in the ankle has occurred?

The ankle is red, swollen, and warm to the touch.

What is the function of inflammation in response to a burn from a hot iron?

To repair the damaged tissue

What cellular macromolecules make up the complement pathway?


Based on the animation, which of the following is cleaved by C1?

C2 and C4

Where are the complement proteins found in the body?

The blood serum

Based on the animation, which of the following is responsible for cleaving C3?


Based on the animation, which of the complement proteins can directly bind to the surface of a bacterial cell?


What is the role of helper T cells in the adaptive immune response?

Helper T cells activate B cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill infected host cells.

What is meant by the clonal expansion of a B cell?

An activated B cell divides into cells that give rise to memory B cells and plasma cells.

The student who caught the cold caused by this specific Rhinovirus was exposed to the exact same Rhinovirus 18 months later. What component of the immune system will protect her from getting the same cold again?

Memory B cells

Correctly order the steps involved cellular immunity:
1.The Tc recognizes the infected host cell
2 The Tc interacts with epitope presented by MHC-I on the dendritic cell
3.The Tc secretes perforin and granzyme, causing apoptosis
4.The helper T cell activates the Tc cell


Which of the following is NOT a step used by cytotoxic T cells to kill infected host cells?

Recognition of infected host cell using its CD4 glycoprotein

Place the following steps of phagocytosis in the order that they occur:

1.Endosome fuses with lysozome
2.Dendritic cell engulfs Rhinovirus
3.Epitopes are attached to MHC-II
4.Digestion of the Rhinovirus
5.MHC-II plus the attached epitope move to the outside of the dendritic cell


Which pair of molecules do NOT directly interact with one another?


Which of the following is NOT a step that ultimately leads to antibody production?

Activation of cytotoxic T cells by helper T cells

A person who has AIDS contracts rare and often life-threatening infections because their helper T cell count is so low. Which of the following components of the immune response still respond to antigen despite the low helper T cell count?

Clonal selection of B cells

Which of the following statements is true?

Adaptive defenses include both humoral and cellular immunity.

Which of the following statements about innate immunity is true?

Bacteria are digested when the phagosome fuses with a lysosome.

Innate immunity

is nonspecific and present at birth.

All of the following protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection EXCEPT


The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to

trap inhaled dust and microorganisms in mucous and propel it away from the lower respiratory tract.

Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?


TLRs attach to all of the following EXCEPT


A differential cell count is used to determine each of the following EXCEPT

the number of red blood cells.

The complement protein cascade is the same for the classical pathway, alternative pathway, and lectin pathway beginning with the activation of


All of the following increase blood vessel permeability EXCEPT


A child falls and suffers a deep cut on her leg. The cut went through her skin and she is bleeding. Which of the following defense mechanisms will participate in eliminating contaminating microbes?

phagocytosis in the inflammatory response

Margination refers to

adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

Gamma interferon causes bactericidal activity by macrophages.

Which of the following is found normally in serum?


Each of the following is an effect of complement activation EXCEPT

interference with viral replication.

Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?

increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms

Normal microbiota provide protection from infection in each of the following ways EXCEPT

they produce lysozyme.

Each of the following provides protection from phagocytic digestion EXCEPT

formation of phagolysosomes.

The antimicrobial effects of AMPs include all of the following EXCEPT

inhibition of phagocytosis.

The swelling associated with inflammation decreases when the fluid

They develop from neutrophils.

Phagocytes utilize all of the following to optimize interaction with microorganisms EXCEPT


All of the following are effects of histamine EXCEPT

production of antibodies.

A chill is a sign that

body temperature is rising.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

There are at least 30 complement protiens

Which of the following is mismatched?

chemotaxis chemical degradation inside a phagolysosome

All of the following are part of the mechanism of action of alpha and beta interferons EXCEPT

they are effective for long periods.

The alternative pathway for complement activation is initiated by

lipid-carbohydrate complexes and C3.

The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by

antigen-antibody reactions.

Activation of C3a results in

acute inflammation.

Innate immunity includes all of the following EXCEPT

production of antibody.

Neutrophils with defective lysosomes are unable to

produce toxic oxygen products.

After ingesting a pathogen, lysosomal enzymes produce all of the following EXCEPT


Activation of C5-C9 results in

lysis of microbial cells.

All of the following are true regarding NK cells EXCEPT

they destroy infected body cells by phagocytosis.

Which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths?


Macrophages arise from which of the following?


All of the following pertain to fever EXCEPT that it

accelerates microbial growth by increasing iron absorption from the digestive tract.

All of the following are iron-binding proteins found in humans EXCEPT


All of the following occur during inflammation. What is the first step?


The lectin pathway for complement action is initiated by

mannose on the surface of microbes.

All of the following are components of the inflammatory process EXCEPT


Several inherited deficiencies in the complement system occur in humans. Which of the following would be the MOST severe?

deficiency of C3

Which of the following statements about the classical pathway of complement activation is FALSE?

C3 is not involved in the classical pathway.

Lysozyme and the antibiotic penicillin have similar mechanisms of action in that they both cause damage to the bacterial

cell wall

Which non-specific defense mechanism is mismatched with its associated body structure or body fluid?

mucociliary escalator intestines

T/F Aspirin alleviates pain, inflammation, and fever by inhibiting prostaglandins.


T/F Histamine and kinins cause increased blood flow and capillary permeability.


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