How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Popular sets related to Social Inequality
Studied by 513 students
Sociology Chapter 8 - Social Stratification
Viewed 33k times
Chaper 8: Social Class and Social Stratification
Studied by 312 students
Intro to Sociology Final
311 terms

test #3

STUDY
PLAY
A condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is called
Social inequality
What term is used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society?
stratification
An individual's salary and wages are called
income
A panhandler makes $15 to $20 per day on the streets. This is an example of
income
Wealth is
material assets such as land, stocks, and other property
A New York stockbroker owns homes in upper Connecticut, Manhattan and the French Riviera, and he owns a real estate management company along with a large portfolio of stocks. The accumulation of the different things that he owns is considered:
wealth
An ascribed status is a social position:
assigned to a person by society without regard for the persons unique talents or characteristics
An 83-year-old woman is placed at a small table in a dark corner of a trendy nightclub and is ignored by the staff. Her shoddy treatment is probably due to her age, which is a (an)
ascribed status
A high school student is given a college scholarship based on his outstanding football skills. This is an example of
achieved status
A high school student is given a college scholarship because she is a Native American.This is an example of
ascribed status
A high school student is given a college scholarship based on because of the amount of time that he has performed community service work. This is an example of
achieved status
Achieved status is a social position:
that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts
A Native American athlete spends months preparing for a big track meet, which she wins. This is an example of
achieved status
A young lawyer loses his first three cases and comes to work late and unprepared regularly; the law firm fires him. This is an example of
achieved status
A female umpire earns a spot in the major leagues during spring training, but after several serious judgment mistakes she is demoted to the minor leagues.This is an example of
achieved status
The most extreme form of legalized social inequality is
slavery
A system of enforced servitude, in which people are legally owned by others, is known as:
slavery
refers to hereditary systems of rank, usually religiously dictated, that are relatively fixed and immobile
caste
Some sociologists have suggested that in the southern United States in the pre-civil rights era, an African American individual was born into a status that would always be subordinate to all of the white members of the community. This would be an example of a (an):
caste
Peasants being required to work land that they leased from nobles in exchange for protection, is considered as which type of stratification system?
estate system
A class system is a social ranking based primarily on
economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility.
What type of stratification would allow the greatest amount of movement from one stratum or level of society to another?
Class system
A woman is born into a homeless single-parent family. She is very talented and as an adult, becomes a wealthy, world-acclaimed pianist. This scenario most closely represents which type of stratification system?
class system
An individual is born into great wealth, but is lazy and unmotivated and carelessly loses her fortune and dies in poverty. This scenario would be most typical of a (an):
class system
Sociologist Daniel Rossides created a _________of the American class system.
five class model
In sociologist Daniel Rossides's model of the class system of the United States, what social class contains the smallest portion of the population?
upper class
Malcolm works as a clerk in the accounting department of a large law firm. In sociologist Daniel Rossides's model of the class system in the U.S., Malcolm would be considered a member of the
lower-middle class
Which one of the five social classes outlined by Daniel Rossides is noticeably declining in size?
upper class
In Karl Marx's view, social relations during any period of history depend on who controls
the primary mode of economic production
is an economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profit.
capitalism
is used by Karl Marx to refer to the capitalist class, which owns the means of production?
Bourgeoisie
Karl Marx used the term proletariat to refer to
the working class
In Karl Marx's view, members of each class share their own
distinctive culture
Karl Marx used the concept of "class consciousness" to refer to:
a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change.
A factory worker organizes a protest against unsafe working conditions after realizing that the owners care more about profits than about the health and safety of the workers. In Karl Marx's terms, the factory worker can be said to have
class consciousness
is used by Karl Marx to refer to an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect the class's objective position?
false consciousness
In Marx's view, a worker who identifies with the wealthy, and believes that he or she can achieve great wealth through hard work, is likely to have developed a
false consciousness
Felix, who works as an editorial assistant at a large publishing company, believes that editorial assistants deserve relatively low pay because the company must turn a profit. In Karl Marx's terms, Felix can be said to have:
false consciousness
One shortcoming of Karl Marx's work is that he failed to anticipate the extent to which political liberties and relative prosperity could contribute to
false consciousness
What did Max Weber suggest were analytically distinct components of stratification?
class, status and power
Max Weber uses the term "class" to refer to people who share a similar level of:
wealth and income
A status group refers to:
People who have the same prestige or lifestyle
Every evening at a neighborhood bar, the clientele, which consists of construction workers, police officers, plumbers, and factory workers, watches sports events on the big screen television set and play pool. The people who "hang out" in this bar are an example of a:
status group
On a cold night a group of homeless people build a fire and gather around it. They talk about their past lives and how they cope with their current conditions. According to Max Weber, this group would constitute a
status group
The owner of a professional football team can fire employees for not winning a division title, have the city build him/her a new stadium, and refuse to permit companies that compete with his/her own team to air advertisements during the team's televised games. This owner would most likely be considered to have
power
In Max Weber's view people hold_____distinct positions in society.
three
What sociologist maintained that a person's position in a stratification system reflects some combination of their class, status, and power?
Max Weber
Thorstein Veblen suggested persons at the top of the social hierarchy convert wealth into conspicuous consumption while the behavior of the lower classes is often subjected to ridicule. Veblen's views are from the_____perspective?
Conflict
Thorstein Veblen used the term_______to describe the behavior of persons at the top of the social hierarchy when converting wealth?
conspicuous consumption
What sociological perspective would be most likely to argue that most talented people would not go to school for many years to become physicians if they could only make as much money and gain as much respect working as street cleaners?
functionalist perspective
What sociologist(s) argue(s) that stratification is universal and that social inequality is necessary so that people will be motivated to fill functionally important positions?
Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore
What sociological perspective argues that competition for scarce resources results in significant political, economic, and social inequality?
Conflict perspective
What sociologist has merged Marx's emphasis on class conflict with Weber's recognition that power is an important element of stratification?
Ralf Dahrendorf
Sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf suggests that among the most powerful groups in society are:
Bourgeoisie, industrial managers, legislators, the judiciary, heads of the government bureaucracy, and others.
Gerhard Lenski argues that social inequality may have once served the overall purposes of society, but the degree of social and economic inequality that now exists far exceeds the need to provide for goods and services. This facet of the Lenski's analysis is consistent with which sociological perspective?
Functionalist perspective
What critic of the functionalist analysis of stratification notes that while a system of rewards for filling highly expert professions demanding long years of education and skill may once have served the overall purposes of society, this situation no longer exists?
Gerhard Lenski Jr
The objective method of assessing social class assigns individuals to classes on the basis ofcriteria such as
occupation, education, income, and place of residence.
The value of a family's home. This is an example of the______method of determining social class in the U.S
objective
The number of years spent working in the same occupation. This is an example of the______method of determining social class in the U.S.
subjective
The annual income and education of family members. This is an example of the______method of determining social class in the U.S.
objective
Prestige refers to the
respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society.
is a term used to refer to the reputation that a specific person has within an occupation?
esteem
In national surveys of occupational prestige rankings in the United States,______receive the highest score and______receive the lowest score.
surgeon, panhandler
The federal tax policies of the last three decades, especially in the 1980s, has favored:
the affluent
What percentage of wealth does the richest 20 percent of people in the United States hold?
40%
is a term that refers to a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison to the nation as a whole
Relative poverty
_______is a sociologist who suggests that it is functional for society to have poor people to do society's dirty work at low wages, to provide middle-class jobs for people who serve the poor, and to serve as a measuring rod of status for those with higher positions.
Herbert Gans
Max Weber referred to people's opportunities to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable experiences as
life chances
is a term that refers to the movement of individuals or groups from one position of society's stratification system to another.
Social mobility
Some analysts suggest that inner-city riots have frequently occurred when poor people realize that their chances of climbing out of poverty are unlikely, based on the structure of our social system. Their frustration is based on their perception that they are living in a (an):
closed system
A woman works as a college professor teaching applied sociology for 25 years and decides to retire and work full-time as a marriage and family therapist. This is an illustration of what type of social mobility?
horizontal
A poor inner-city youth spends many hours in the neighborhood playground, shooting baskets on the basketball court and engaging in every game that he can play. His skills become outstanding, and he receives a college scholarship and then signs a lucrative contract to play in the National Basketball Association. This is an example of:
vertical
A person loses his or her job as a corporate vice president because of downsizing and remains unemployed for 14 months. This is an example of______mobility
vertical
An African president is overthrown in a bloodless coup and flees to a neighboring country where he works as a farmer. This is an example of______mobility.
vertical
A National Football League star suffers a career-ending injury and gets a job as an auto mechanic. This is an example of______mobility
vertical
A woman who was born and raised in a poor family begins her career as a postal clerk and later becomes a regional supervisor for the U.S. Postal Service. She has experienced
intergenerational mobility
Research concerning the degree of social mobility within the occupational structure of the United States indicates that occupational mobility has been common among
malesbb
According the Schaefer text, what level of college education serves as less of a guarantee of upward mobility than in the past?
B.A/B.S
Women's/Men's) employment opportunities are more limited than employment opportunities for (women/men).
womens, mens
(Women/Men) are more likely than (women/men) to withdraw from the labor force if their skills exceed the job offered them.
women, men
Self-employment and entrepreneurship is easier for (women/men) to attain than(women/men).
men, women
(Women/Men) experience lower rates of upward mobility compared to (women/men).
women, men
The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a power for an extended period of time is known as
colonialism
Neocolonialism is
Continuing dependence and foreign domination.
The world systems analysis is Immanuel Wallerstein's view of the global economic system as divided between certain industrialized nations that control______and developing countries that are_______.
wealth, making economic advances
According to the world systems analysis, a "core" nation is a nation that:
are highly economically diversified, have a strong government, and are highly industrialized
According to the world systems analysis, a "periphery" nation is a nation that:
Least economically diversified, have a weak government, and are least industrialized
The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas is known as
Globalization
The value of sales of the largest multinational corporations exceeds the total value of goods and services of many______nations.
entire
The________sociological perspective would most likely suggest that multinational corporations help create social stability within a society by creating jobs and global enterprise.
Functionalist
The________sociological perspective would most likely compare the relationship between a colonial nation and the colonized people to the relationship between the dominant capitalist class and the proletariats
interactionalist
Modernization refers to the:
far-reaching process by which a society moves from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies.
The process by which a society moves from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies is called:
modernization
Sociologist_____notes that modern societies tend to be urban, literate, industrial, and have sophisticated transportation and media systems, and that families in such societies are organized within the nuclear family unit rather than the extended family model.
Bell
Sociologists are quick to note that terms such as modernization and development contain (a/an)_____bias
ethnocentric
The most extreme form of legalized social inequality for individuals or groups is a caste system.
false
Peasants required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services is referred to as a caste system.
false
According to Karl Marx, a worker with class-consciousness may feel that he or she is being treated fairly by the bourgeoisie, and a worker with false consciousness realizes that all workers are being exploited by the bourgeoisie and have a common stake in revolution.
...
Max Weber argued that actions of individuals and groups could be understood solely in economic terms
false
Even if stratification is inevitable, the functionalist explanation for differential rewards does not explain the wide disparity between the rich and the poor.
true
Conflict sociologists argue that stratification will inevitably lead to instability and to social change
true
Wealth in the United States is more evenly distributed than income.
false
Men are more likely than women to withdraw from the workforce when their skills far exceed the jobs offered them.
false
The division between core and periphery nations has changed significantly over the last 100 years, according to a study by the International Monetary Fund.
false
Total revenues of multinational businesses are on a par with the total value of goods and services exchanged in entire nations.
true
What sociologist became interested in the privileges of being White?
Peggy McIntosh
What aspect of discrimination is the focus of feminist scholar Peggy McIntosh's research?
Discrimination against racial and ethnic minorities
The one-drop rule is a vivid example of:
Social construction of race
The process by which people come to define a group as a race based, in part, on physical characteristics, but also on historical, cultural, and economic factors, is called:
Social construction of race
In the 2000 Census, the number of people who claimed multiracial ancestry in two or more races was approximately
7 million people
Throughout United States history, many southern states defined a person as black, regardless of how s/he looked, even if s/he had only______ of "black blood."
a single drop
Nearly 7 million people in the U.S. are multiracial
...
The largest group of multiracial residents is of______and_____.
white, American Indian
In the 2000 Census, among the people who claimed multiracial ancestry in two or more races, the largest group was_____and________.
white, American Indian ancestory
Census Bureau figures estimate that the racial and ethnic composition of the U.S. population will change as much in the next___years as it has in the last___.
50, 100
Social construction occurs in___societies.
all
White and American Indians comprise the______multiracial group in the U.S.
largest
What sociologist observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them?
William I Thomas
The term describing the sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed is
racial formation
One of the most crucial aspects of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the ability of the dominant or majority group to:
define a society's values
W. I. Thomas observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them. This observation reflects the
interactionalist sociological perspective
A stereotype is a (an):
Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group.
Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group is referred to as a(an)
stereotypes
A television show that portrays women as being subservient to men and that generally talks down the role of women would be considered to be bolstering
stereotypes
A person loudly proclaiming that "all black people are lazy, shiftless, and collect welfare" is an example of a
stereotype
The_________sociological perspective most likely to emphasize that stereotypes contribute to prejudice and thereby assist the subordination of disadvantaged racial and ethnic groups
feminist/conflict
_______is a term used by sociologists to describe a group that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences
Racial Group
A racial group is a group that is set apart from others because of:
physical differences
Asian Americans are an example of a
racial group
African Americans are an example of a
racial group
An_____group is a group that is set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
ethnic
Characteristics of national origin or distinctive cultural patterns are used primarily by a society to set apart
ethnic groups
African Americans are an example of a(n)
ethnic group
Native Americans are an example of a
ethnic group
Chinese Americans are an example of a
ethnic group
Italian Americans, Jewish Americans, and Norwegian Americans are all examples of a (an):
ethnic groups
What group is currently the largest racial minority in the United States?
Black Americans
The distinction between ethnic and racial minorities is not always
clear cut
Ethnic minorities, such as Latinos, may have obvious______differences set them apart from other residents of the U.S.
physical
Despite categorization problems, sociologists continue to feel that the distinction between race and an ethnicity is_____significant.
socially
A trip to an ethnic bakery is an example of______ethnicity.
symbolic
A Black person trying to act White is an example of______ethnicity
...
A Latino intentionally misrepresenting his heritage is an example of_______ethnicity
...
During World War II the United States________lift or loosen restrictive immigration quotas in order to allow Jewish refugees to escape the terror of the Nazi regime
refused to
The S.S. St. Louis, with more than 900 Jewish refugees on board, was_______permission to dock in the United States in 1939 because of restrictive immigration quotas
denied
The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act:
Outlawed the hiring of illegal aliens
Immigrations laws in the United States underwent a major revision during the_____leading to an increase in the proportion of immigrants from Asia and Latin America
1960's
_______is approximately the number of illegal immigrants present within the United States at any given time.
11 million
The________sociological perspective would likely suggest that immigration relieves labor shortages in the receiving nation and it relieves economies unable to support large numbers of people in the sending nations
functionalist
The_________sociological perspective notes that much of the debate over immigration is phrased in economic terms, and that this debate is intensified when the arrivals are of different racial and ethnic backgrounds than the host population.
feminist and conflict
The______sociological perspective sees the economic structure as a central factor in the exploitation of minority groups?
conflict
What sociologist has identified three functions that racially prejudiced beliefs serve the dominant group (e.g., they provide a moral justification for maintaining an unequal society that routinely deprives a minority of its rights and privileges)?
manning nash
The______sociological perspective would most likely suggest that racist beliefs discourage the subordinate minority from attempting to question its lowly status, and thus question the very foundations of society
functionalist
__________are sociologists who have used the exploitation theory to explain the basis of racial subordination in the United States.
Oliver Cox, Robert Blauner, and Herbert M. Hunter
Exploitation theory is a_______theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism
marxist
Oliver Cox, Robert Blauner, and Herbert M. Hunter used______theory to explain the basis of racial subordination in the United States
exploitation
______is a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism?
exploitation theory
______theory provides a theoretical basis for the position that racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs and thereby provides the ruling class with a cheap pool of desperate labor.
exploitation
An approach to racism which emphasizes that racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs, thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor, is based on the work of
karl marx
A sociologist argues that the capitalist ruling class is willing to tolerate high rates of illegal immigration because these immigrants serve as a pool of cheap labor. This sociologist is most likely to draw upon______theory.
exploitation
Recent Chinese immigrants to the United States often find jobs working in "sweatshops" in Chinatown in New York City, where they work 16 or more hours per day in the textile industry, and earn below minimum wage. The big businesses that hire these illegal and often uninformed immigrants are an illustration of______theory.
exploitation
Japanese Americans were the object of little prejudice until they began to enter jobs that brought them into competition with Whites. This example supports the_____theory.
exploitation
The______theory is useful for discussing the experiences of both Japanese Americans and Chinese Americans in the United States?
exploitation
Law enforcement officers, customs officials, and airport security personnel who develop a practice of mainly stopping and checking people whom they assume are likely to be engaged in illegal activities — simply based on the notion they "fit" certain descriptions—is considered______profiling.
racial
The practice of assuming that people who fit certain descriptions are likely to be engaged in illegal activities is referred to as
racial profiling
Acts of racial profiling are always initiated by
an authority based on race, ethnicity, or the national origin rather than on a person's behavior.
The contact hypothesis is a Parsonian theory that views ethnic subordination
...
The_______hypothesis supports the idea that interracial dealings among people with equal statuses, in cooperative circumstances, cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon previously held stereotypes
contact
The "contact hypothesis" occurs only if interracial people who work together have
the same job
A farmer is called to help sandbag a levy, which is about to flood the town. The farmer is stationed between two correctional center inmates who are required to assist in the flood efforts. As a result of the experience, the farmer has a newfound respect for inmates. This example most likely would be consistent with which sociological perspective?
interactionist perspective
A white male lawyer mentors a young Latino female lawyer. According to the contact hypothesis, this situation would be unlikely to reduce prejudice because:
they'd eventually be competeing for the same position
A Colombian woman and an Italian man, working together as members of a construction crew, overcome their initial prejudices and come to appreciate each other's talents and strengths. This is an example of______hypothesis
contact
What sociologist suggested that interracial coalitions would most likely reduce racial and ethnic stereotyping and prejudice?
William Julius Wilson
_______is a term used to refer to a negative attitude toward an entire category of people.
prejudice
Mary believes that all men are "pigs." This is an example of
prejudice
During the summer before your freshman year of college, you receive a letter from the school telling you that your new roommate is from a small town in Arkansas. You respond by telling a high school friend, "I can't believe it. I'm stuck in a room with a hillbilly!" This is an example of
prejudice
Ethnocentrism refers to:
the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represents the norm or are superior to all others.
Joe, who grew up in an Italian household in an Italian community in New Jersey, believes that the traditional Italian celebration of Easter, which includes large numbers of family members and mountains of food consumed during a long dinner, is the best way to celebrate this holiday. Joe is illustrating
ethnocentrism
Racism is
the belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior.
A belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior is called
racism
The process of denying opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons is known as
discrimination
Sue believes poor people are criminals. This is an example of
racism
Sue refuses to give Jane a ride to work because Jane is poor. This is an example of
discrimination
Jane, who is poor, vandalizes the cars of rich people who she believes are snobs. This is an example of
hate crime
Sue refuses to hire Jane because she is poor. This is an example of
discrimination
When racism prevails in a society, members of subordinate groups generally experience
prejudice, discrimination, and exploitation
Prejudice is a(n) __________; discrimination is a(n) ______
...
An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity is known as a______ceiling.
glass
In 1995, the federal Glass Ceiling Commission found that glass ceilings:
continued to block women and men from subordinate racial and ethnic groups from top management positions in the nations industries.
_______discrimination is the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of society
institutional
The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of society is called
institutional discrimination
Rules requiring that only English be spoken at a place of work, even though it is not a business necessity is an example of_______discrimination
institutional
At one time, many Puerto Ricans were effectively barred from serving in the Chicago Police Department because they failed to meet the height requirement. This was an example of______discrimination
institutional
To save money, a city fires all employees hired during the last three years. During the last three years, the city has had an aggressive minority-hiring program, and the majority of those fired are therefore members of various minority groups. This is an example of______discrimination
institutional
A firm's rule that only English be spoken at work is an example of_______discrimination
institutional
A law school's policy of giving preference in admissions to children of influential alumni is an example of______discrimination
institutional
A firm's prohibition against the use of part-time workers is an example of_______discrimination
institutional
Passage of the recent Aviation and Transportation Security Act, which mandates that all airport screeners must be U.S. citizens, has been noted by many observers to be a form of______discrimination
institutional
The landmark 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in public accommodations and publicly owned facilities on the basis of:
race, color, creed, national origin, and gender
_______is a term that refers to positive efforts to recruit minority members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities
affirmative action
Research suggesting that White ex-convicts are more employable than Blacks without criminal records was done by sociologist
Devah Pager
Patterns of income across race and gender groups suggest that______bear an especially heavy burden of discrimination.
race/ethnic groups
Both employment _________ and educational _______contributes to income differences across racial and ethnic groups?
...
Privileges experienced by the dominant are one of the most researched areas by sociologists due to the importance of racial equality
...
The "one-drop rule" stipulated that if a person had even a single drop of "Indian blood," that person was viewed as an Indian.
false
The most recent census figures suggest that almost 20 percent of the American population claims to be biracial.
false
The term "racial group" is used to describe a group that is set apart from others because of obvious cultural distinctions.
false
In the view of sociologists, the distinction between racial and ethnic minorities is an obvious distinction.
false
Symbolic ethnicity refers to a person's tie to ethnicity through concerns such as ethnic food, rather than deeper ties to one's ethnic heritage.
true
Racial profiling is illegal in the United States.
false
The contact hypothesis suggests that if an African American boss and her Italian employee work together for several years in the same office, they will become less prejudiced toward one another.
true
Prejudice is defined as the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups.
false
The "glass ceiling" is a term used to describe a discriminatory practice applicable to women only.
false
African Americans are still more likely than Whites to be frisked and handled with force when they are stopped by police.
true
The contact hypothesis suggests that if an African American boss and her Italian employee work together for several years in the same office, they will become less prejudiced toward one another
true
Discrimination is defined as the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups.
true
According to the text, we are likely to assume either consciously or unconsciously that parental duties are
maternal duties
______ a term that refers to expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
gender roles
A gender role is:
defined as expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
A young boy in a child care facility already realizes that some people are females and some people are males, and he plays only with other little boys. In addition, he likes to wear the same kinds of clothes that they wear. He is in the process of developing a (an):
gender role
Six year old Sally spanks her doll for misbehaving. This is an example of_______gender role.
male
Fear of and prejudice against homosexuality is called
homophobia
In most cases, the crucial agents of gender-role socialization are
parents
What social institutions play an important role in gender-role socialization in the United States?
other adults, older siblings, mass media, religious and educational institutions
The_______sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that gender roles are learned by identifying with adult role models of the same sex?
functionalist
Research of children's books published in the United States in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s indicated that female characters were portrayed as _________ and in need of _______males
helpless, passive and incompetent,
strong
_________ and ________ have identified five aspects of male gender roles (i.e., antifeminine, success, aggressive, sexual, and self-reliant)?
robert brannon, james doyle
Robert Brannon and James Doyle identified five aspects of the male gender role that included an __________element and a _________element
antifeminine, success, aggressive, sexul and self-reliant elements
List the five aspects of the male gender role as identified by Robert Brannon and James Doyle
antifemine element-show no "sissy stuff", including any expression of openess or vurnerability.
sucess element-prove one's masculinity at work and in sports.
aggresive element-use force in dealing with others
sexual element-initiate and control all sexual elements
self-reliant element-keep cool and unflappable
Males who do not conform to the socially constructed gender role face
constant criticism and even humiliation
In addition to her gender, a woman's position in the labor market may be impacted by her
...
When it comes to income attainment, minority women can be said to bear a_______burden.
larger
Sociologist Susan Walzer studied whether mothers and fathers spent __________amounts of time thinking about the care of their children
equal
distinguished between ________and ___________ roles
emotional, instrumental
conducted a ____________analysis of gender roles in the United States
...
noted that families benefit from the traditional _______of labor between men and women, which ensures that all of society's jobs are completed
division
_______is a term is used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to refer to an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions
instrumentality
The concept of instrumentality, as used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, refers to:
an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationships between one's family and other social institutions
Tom spends every day all week at the office. This illustrates the ________________role in U.S. society, as developed by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales.
concept of instrumentality
According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, the instrumental role is most likely performed by
males
. According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, what role do men take within the family?
instrumentality
_______is a term used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to refer to concern for the maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family.
expressiveness
The concept of expressiveness, as used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, refers to:
denotes a concern for the maintenance of harmony and the intermal emotional affairs of the family
Marsha, a new employee at a day care center, is praised by her boss for being warm and nurturing to the young children. This illustrates the _________ role in U.S. society, as developed by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales?
expressiveness
A newly married woman keeps a spotless apartment and cooks beautiful gourmet meals. This illustrates the _________ role in U.S. society, as developed by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales.
expressiveness
According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, the _______ role most likely performed by women
expressiveness
Although it does not endorse traditional gender roles, the _______ sociological perspective implies that dividing tasks between spouses is beneficial for the family unit.
functionalist
The ________ sociological perspective is criticized because it does not convincingly explain why men should be categorically assigned to the instrumental role and women to the expressive role.
functionalist
The ___________sociological perspective would most likely argue that Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales's analysis of gender roles masks underlying power relations between men and women
conflict
_________roles in the United States receive higher amounts of rewards in terms of prestige and money
men's instrumental
The_______sociological perspective emphasizes that the relationship between women and men has been one of unequal power, with men in a dominant position over women.
conflict
The________sociological perspective suggests that men may have become powerful in preindustrial times because their size, physical strength, and freedom from childbearing duties allowed them to dominate women physically
conflict
Conflict theorists would view gender differences as:
a reflection of the subjugation of one's group[women] by another group[mens]
Using an analogy to Marx's analysis of class conflict, conflict theorists argue that women are in a position comparable to that of the:
workers/proletariat
Using an analogy to Marx's analysis of class conflict, conflict theorists argue that men are in a position comparable to that of the:
bourgeoisie, capitalist or "bosses"
A Vindication of the Rights of Women was published in 1792, and was written by:
Mary Wollstonecraft
The Subjection of Women was published in 1869, and was written by:
John Stuart Mills
The Origin of Private Property, the Family, and the State was published in 1884, and was written by
Friedrich Engles
Who argued that women's subjugation coincided with the rise of private property during industrialization?
Friedrich Engles
Friedrich Engels, a close associate of Karl Marx, argued that women's subjugation by men:
with the rise of _______during industrialization
private property
Friedrich Engels argued that women's _________ coincided with the rise of private property during industrialization
subjugation
Feminist sociologists would argue that the very discussion of women and society, however well meaning, has been distorted by the exclusion of _____________ from academic thought, including sociology.
women
The _________ sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist perspective the most.
conflict
Some radical feminist theorists view the oppression of women as __________, regardless of whether it is a capitalist, socialist, or communist society.
inevitable(in all male-dominated societies)
The early work of Jane Addams and Ida Wells-Barnett was excluded from most academic thought because:
they generally worked outside the discipline focusing on what we would now call applied sociology and social work.
The_____________________________________________________ sociological perspective(s) argues that it is not possible to drastically change gender roles without dramatic revisions in a culture's social structure.
conflict, femanist and functionalist
Researchers found that in conversations between males and females (males/females are more likely to interrupt (males/females) than vice versa.
males, females
Simple day-to-day verbal exchanges between males and females are a battleground in the struggle for sexual equality, as women and girls try to "get a word in edgewise" in the midst of interruptions and verbal dominance by males. Which perspective would focus on this issue?
interactionist
Although male dominance in cross-sex conversations is an example of a micro-level analysis, it is also a reflection of macro-level relationships. Which sociological perspective(s) would focus on the macro-level forces that influence these male and female conversations?
functionalist and conflict
Educators are concerned about the ways girls and young women are affected by the verbal dominance of males in classroom settings. Which sociological perspective(s) would be most likely to address this issue?
interactionist
The________sociological perspective(s) emphasizes that patterns of male dominance in cross-sex conversations are a battleground in the struggle for sexual equality?
interactionist
In 2006, ______women served as state governors.
6
In 2006, women have made steady progress in certain political arenas as indicated by the fact that, ______ women served in the House of Representatives, ______ women served as governors, and _______ women serve in the Senate
73, 6, 17
The ideology that one sex is superior to the other is known as
sexism
Sexism is defined as
the ideology that one sex is superior to the other.
The foreman of a construction crew will not hire women because "they are weak, moody, and a distraction." The foreman's attitudes are
sexism
Institutional discrimination refers to the:
denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of a society.
is a term that refers to the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that result from the normal operations of a society.
institutional discrimination
Institutional discrimination is present in which United States institutions?
the government, armed forces, large corporations, the media, universities, and the medial establishment
A gym buys uniforms for employees. All of the uniforms are in a men's large size, and the gym only hires people who will comfortably fit into the uniforms. As a result of this policy, the gym does not hire any women. This would be an example of:
institutional discrimination
A hospital has a policy of not hiring men as nurses, even if the applicants have earned high grades in their courses and on their board exams, because the hospital administration thinks that "patients will be uncomfortable with a male nurse." This is an example of:
institutional discrimination
Behavior that occurs when work benefits are made contingent upon sexual favors, or the making of lewd comments and presence of pornographic material create a hostile work environment is referred to as:
sexual harassment
In 1998, the Supreme Court ruled that sexual harassment in the workplace applied:
also to people of the______sex.
same
A_______work environment has become the subject of considerable debate.
hostile
Sexual harassment generally occurs in organizations in which the hierarchy of authority includes
white males
Women grow_____the world's food, but they rarely own land
half
Women constitute______of the world's paid labor force, but are generally found in the lowest paying jobs.
1/3
Single-parent households headed by women are typically found in the ______sections of the population.
poorest
A 2000 United Nations report on international gender inequality noted that women almost always work in occupations with________status than men
lower
A 2000 United Nations report on international gender inequality found that female circumcision is regularly practiced in some _______ cultures
...
A 2000 United Nations report on international gender found that there are more illiterate (men/women) in the world than (men/women).
women, men
By 2004, _______percent of adult American women held jobs outside the home.
57
______percentage of working women will likely return to the workforce within one year of giving birth
55
An invisible barrier, which blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity, is called:
glass ceiling
A glass ceiling is:
an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work enviroment because of the individual's race, gender, or ethnicity.
Pamela and several men are hired by a large corporation at entry-level positions. Over the course of several years, these employees are given several promotions until they reach middle management positions. However, over the next several years the men are all promoted to senior management positions, while Pamela, who receives the same evaluations as the men, receives no additional promotions. This is an example of the_____ceiling.
glass
Georgia is hired along with three men by a recording company. Over time, the men are all promoted to managerial positions. Georgia, who appears to be an equally productive worker, is still in her entry-level position. This could be an example of the _______ceiling
glass
_________is a phrase used by sociologist Arlie Hochschild to describe the double-burden of working outside the home, followed by childcare and housework, which many women face and few men share equitably.
second shift
The "second shift," which refers to the double-burden put upon women who work outside the home and then come home to childcare and housework, was the subject of analysis by
Arlie Hochschilds
Arlie Hochschild's research indicated that women spend ______ fewer hours in leisure activities than their husbands do
15
A woman has a career as a stockbroker, and she is also responsible for maintaining the apartment, doing the shopping, and cooking for herself and her husband. This illustrates Arlie Hochschild's concept of
second shift
A gender role is the self-concept of a person as being male or female
false
We socially construct our behavior so that male-female differences are either created or exaggerated
true
The continuing stigma attached to homosexuality in our culture places pressure on all males to exhibit only narrow "masculine" behavior and on all females to exhibit only narrow "feminine" behavior.
true
By the 1980s, there was less gender stereotyping in children's books, but boys were still shown engaged in active play three times as often as girls.
false
Brannon and Doyle have suggested that the following are aspects of the male gender role: communicate openly and expressively, prove one's masculinity at work and sports, use force in dealing with others, initiate and control all sexual relations, and keep cool and unflappable
false
Functionalists, conflict, and feminist theorists acknowledge it is not possible to change gender roles drastically without dramatic revisions in a culture's social structure.
true
A conflict theorist is likely to argue that men's work is uniformly valued, while women's work (whether unpaid labor in the home or wage labor) is devalued.
true
The functionalist approach to gender stratification focuses on biology as the primary determinant of gender differences.
false
A conflict theorist is likely to argue that men's work is uniformly valued, while women's work (whether unpaid labor in the home or wage labor) is devalued
true
Functionalists, conflict, and feminist theorists acknowledge it is not possible to change gender roles drastically without dramatic revisions in a culture's social structure
true