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A condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is called

Social inequality

What term is used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society?


An individual's salary and wages are called


A panhandler makes $15 to $20 per day on the streets. This is an example of


Wealth is

material assets such as land, stocks, and other property

A New York stockbroker owns homes in upper Connecticut, Manhattan and the French Riviera, and he owns a real estate management company along with a large portfolio of stocks. The accumulation of the different things that he owns is considered:


An ascribed status is a social position:

assigned to a person by society without regard for the persons unique talents or characteristics

An 83-year-old woman is placed at a small table in a dark corner of a trendy nightclub and is ignored by the staff. Her shoddy treatment is probably due to her age, which is a (an)

ascribed status

A high school student is given a college scholarship based on his outstanding football skills. This is an example of

achieved status

A high school student is given a college scholarship because she is a Native American.This is an example of

ascribed status

A high school student is given a college scholarship based on because of the amount of time that he has performed community service work. This is an example of

achieved status

Achieved status is a social position:

that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts

A Native American athlete spends months preparing for a big track meet, which she wins. This is an example of

achieved status

A young lawyer loses his first three cases and comes to work late and unprepared regularly; the law firm fires him. This is an example of

achieved status

A female umpire earns a spot in the major leagues during spring training, but after several serious judgment mistakes she is demoted to the minor leagues.This is an example of

achieved status

The most extreme form of legalized social inequality is


A system of enforced servitude, in which people are legally owned by others, is known as:


refers to hereditary systems of rank, usually religiously dictated, that are relatively fixed and immobile


Some sociologists have suggested that in the southern United States in the pre-civil rights era, an African American individual was born into a status that would always be subordinate to all of the white members of the community. This would be an example of a (an):


Peasants being required to work land that they leased from nobles in exchange for protection, is considered as which type of stratification system?

estate system

A class system is a social ranking based primarily on

economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility.

What type of stratification would allow the greatest amount of movement from one stratum or level of society to another?

Class system

A woman is born into a homeless single-parent family. She is very talented and as an adult, becomes a wealthy, world-acclaimed pianist. This scenario most closely represents which type of stratification system?

class system

An individual is born into great wealth, but is lazy and unmotivated and carelessly loses her fortune and dies in poverty. This scenario would be most typical of a (an):

class system

Sociologist Daniel Rossides created a _________of the American class system.

five class model

In sociologist Daniel Rossides's model of the class system of the United States, what social class contains the smallest portion of the population?

upper class

Malcolm works as a clerk in the accounting department of a large law firm. In sociologist Daniel Rossides's model of the class system in the U.S., Malcolm would be considered a member of the

lower-middle class

Which one of the five social classes outlined by Daniel Rossides is noticeably declining in size?

upper class

In Karl Marx's view, social relations during any period of history depend on who controls

the primary mode of economic production

is an economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profit.


is used by Karl Marx to refer to the capitalist class, which owns the means of production?


Karl Marx used the term proletariat to refer to

the working class

In Karl Marx's view, members of each class share their own

distinctive culture

Karl Marx used the concept of "class consciousness" to refer to:

a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change.

A factory worker organizes a protest against unsafe working conditions after realizing that the owners care more about profits than about the health and safety of the workers. In Karl Marx's terms, the factory worker can be said to have

class consciousness

is used by Karl Marx to refer to an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect the class's objective position?

false consciousness

In Marx's view, a worker who identifies with the wealthy, and believes that he or she can achieve great wealth through hard work, is likely to have developed a

false consciousness

Felix, who works as an editorial assistant at a large publishing company, believes that editorial assistants deserve relatively low pay because the company must turn a profit. In Karl Marx's terms, Felix can be said to have:

false consciousness

One shortcoming of Karl Marx's work is that he failed to anticipate the extent to which political liberties and relative prosperity could contribute to

false consciousness

What did Max Weber suggest were analytically distinct components of stratification?

class, status and power

Max Weber uses the term "class" to refer to people who share a similar level of:

wealth and income

A status group refers to:

People who have the same prestige or lifestyle

Every evening at a neighborhood bar, the clientele, which consists of construction workers, police officers, plumbers, and factory workers, watches sports events on the big screen television set and play pool. The people who "hang out" in this bar are an example of a:

status group

On a cold night a group of homeless people build a fire and gather around it. They talk about their past lives and how they cope with their current conditions. According to Max Weber, this group would constitute a

status group

The owner of a professional football team can fire employees for not winning a division title, have the city build him/her a new stadium, and refuse to permit companies that compete with his/her own team to air advertisements during the team's televised games. This owner would most likely be considered to have


In Max Weber's view people hold_____distinct positions in society.


What sociologist maintained that a person's position in a stratification system reflects some combination of their class, status, and power?

Max Weber

Thorstein Veblen suggested persons at the top of the social hierarchy convert wealth into conspicuous consumption while the behavior of the lower classes is often subjected to ridicule. Veblen's views are from the_____perspective?


Thorstein Veblen used the term_______to describe the behavior of persons at the top of the social hierarchy when converting wealth?

conspicuous consumption

What sociological perspective would be most likely to argue that most talented people would not go to school for many years to become physicians if they could only make as much money and gain as much respect working as street cleaners?

functionalist perspective

What sociologist(s) argue(s) that stratification is universal and that social inequality is necessary so that people will be motivated to fill functionally important positions?

Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore

What sociological perspective argues that competition for scarce resources results in significant political, economic, and social inequality?

Conflict perspective

What sociologist has merged Marx's emphasis on class conflict with Weber's recognition that power is an important element of stratification?

Ralf Dahrendorf

Sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf suggests that among the most powerful groups in society are:

Bourgeoisie, industrial managers, legislators, the judiciary, heads of the government bureaucracy, and others.

Gerhard Lenski argues that social inequality may have once served the overall purposes of society, but the degree of social and economic inequality that now exists far exceeds the need to provide for goods and services. This facet of the Lenski's analysis is consistent with which sociological perspective?

Functionalist perspective

What critic of the functionalist analysis of stratification notes that while a system of rewards for filling highly expert professions demanding long years of education and skill may once have served the overall purposes of society, this situation no longer exists?

Gerhard Lenski Jr

The objective method of assessing social class assigns individuals to classes on the basis ofcriteria such as

occupation, education, income, and place of residence.

The value of a family's home. This is an example of the______method of determining social class in the U.S


The number of years spent working in the same occupation. This is an example of the______method of determining social class in the U.S.


The annual income and education of family members. This is an example of the______method of determining social class in the U.S.


Prestige refers to the

respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society.

is a term used to refer to the reputation that a specific person has within an occupation?


In national surveys of occupational prestige rankings in the United States,______receive the highest score and______receive the lowest score.

surgeon, panhandler

The federal tax policies of the last three decades, especially in the 1980s, has favored:

the affluent

What percentage of wealth does the richest 20 percent of people in the United States hold?


is a term that refers to a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison to the nation as a whole

Relative poverty

_______is a sociologist who suggests that it is functional for society to have poor people to do society's dirty work at low wages, to provide middle-class jobs for people who serve the poor, and to serve as a measuring rod of status for those with higher positions.

Herbert Gans

Max Weber referred to people's opportunities to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable experiences as

life chances

is a term that refers to the movement of individuals or groups from one position of society's stratification system to another.

Social mobility

Some analysts suggest that inner-city riots have frequently occurred when poor people realize that their chances of climbing out of poverty are unlikely, based on the structure of our social system. Their frustration is based on their perception that they are living in a (an):

closed system

A woman works as a college professor teaching applied sociology for 25 years and decides to retire and work full-time as a marriage and family therapist. This is an illustration of what type of social mobility?


A poor inner-city youth spends many hours in the neighborhood playground, shooting baskets on the basketball court and engaging in every game that he can play. His skills become outstanding, and he receives a college scholarship and then signs a lucrative contract to play in the National Basketball Association. This is an example of:


A person loses his or her job as a corporate vice president because of downsizing and remains unemployed for 14 months. This is an example of______mobility


An African president is overthrown in a bloodless coup and flees to a neighboring country where he works as a farmer. This is an example of______mobility.


A National Football League star suffers a career-ending injury and gets a job as an auto mechanic. This is an example of______mobility


A woman who was born and raised in a poor family begins her career as a postal clerk and later becomes a regional supervisor for the U.S. Postal Service. She has experienced

intergenerational mobility

Research concerning the degree of social mobility within the occupational structure of the United States indicates that occupational mobility has been common among


According the Schaefer text, what level of college education serves as less of a guarantee of upward mobility than in the past?


Women's/Men's) employment opportunities are more limited than employment opportunities for (women/men).

womens, mens

(Women/Men) are more likely than (women/men) to withdraw from the labor force if their skills exceed the job offered them.

women, men

Self-employment and entrepreneurship is easier for (women/men) to attain than(women/men).

men, women

(Women/Men) experience lower rates of upward mobility compared to (women/men).

women, men

The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a power for an extended period of time is known as


Neocolonialism is

Continuing dependence and foreign domination.

The world systems analysis is Immanuel Wallerstein's view of the global economic system as divided between certain industrialized nations that control______and developing countries that are_______.

wealth, making economic advances

According to the world systems analysis, a "core" nation is a nation that:

are highly economically diversified, have a strong government, and are highly industrialized

According to the world systems analysis, a "periphery" nation is a nation that:

Least economically diversified, have a weak government, and are least industrialized

The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas is known as


The value of sales of the largest multinational corporations exceeds the total value of goods and services of many______nations.


The________sociological perspective would most likely suggest that multinational corporations help create social stability within a society by creating jobs and global enterprise.


The________sociological perspective would most likely compare the relationship between a colonial nation and the colonized people to the relationship between the dominant capitalist class and the proletariats


Modernization refers to the:

far-reaching process by which a society moves from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies.

The process by which a society moves from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies is called:


Sociologist_____notes that modern societies tend to be urban, literate, industrial, and have sophisticated transportation and media systems, and that families in such societies are organized within the nuclear family unit rather than the extended family model.


Sociologists are quick to note that terms such as modernization and development contain (a/an)_____bias


The most extreme form of legalized social inequality for individuals or groups is a caste system.


Peasants required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services is referred to as a caste system.


According to Karl Marx, a worker with class-consciousness may feel that he or she is being treated fairly by the bourgeoisie, and a worker with false consciousness realizes that all workers are being exploited by the bourgeoisie and have a common stake in revolution.


Max Weber argued that actions of individuals and groups could be understood solely in economic terms


Even if stratification is inevitable, the functionalist explanation for differential rewards does not explain the wide disparity between the rich and the poor.


Conflict sociologists argue that stratification will inevitably lead to instability and to social change


Wealth in the United States is more evenly distributed than income.


Men are more likely than women to withdraw from the workforce when their skills far exceed the jobs offered them.


The division between core and periphery nations has changed significantly over the last 100 years, according to a study by the International Monetary Fund.


Total revenues of multinational businesses are on a par with the total value of goods and services exchanged in entire nations.


What sociologist became interested in the privileges of being White?

Peggy McIntosh

What aspect of discrimination is the focus of feminist scholar Peggy McIntosh's research?

Discrimination against racial and ethnic minorities

The one-drop rule is a vivid example of:

Social construction of race

The process by which people come to define a group as a race based, in part, on physical characteristics, but also on historical, cultural, and economic factors, is called:

Social construction of race

In the 2000 Census, the number of people who claimed multiracial ancestry in two or more races was approximately

7 million people

Throughout United States history, many southern states defined a person as black, regardless of how s/he looked, even if s/he had only______ of "black blood."

a single drop

Nearly 7 million people in the U.S. are multiracial


The largest group of multiracial residents is of______and_____.

white, American Indian

In the 2000 Census, among the people who claimed multiracial ancestry in two or more races, the largest group was_____and________.

white, American Indian ancestory

Census Bureau figures estimate that the racial and ethnic composition of the U.S. population will change as much in the next___years as it has in the last___.

50, 100

Social construction occurs in___societies.


White and American Indians comprise the______multiracial group in the U.S.


What sociologist observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them?

William I Thomas

The term describing the sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed is

racial formation

One of the most crucial aspects of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the ability of the dominant or majority group to:

define a society's values

W. I. Thomas observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them. This observation reflects the

interactionalist sociological perspective

A stereotype is a (an):

Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group.

Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group is referred to as a(an)


A television show that portrays women as being subservient to men and that generally talks down the role of women would be considered to be bolstering


A person loudly proclaiming that "all black people are lazy, shiftless, and collect welfare" is an example of a


The_________sociological perspective most likely to emphasize that stereotypes contribute to prejudice and thereby assist the subordination of disadvantaged racial and ethnic groups


_______is a term used by sociologists to describe a group that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences

Racial Group

A racial group is a group that is set apart from others because of:

physical differences

Asian Americans are an example of a

racial group

African Americans are an example of a

racial group

An_____group is a group that is set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns


Characteristics of national origin or distinctive cultural patterns are used primarily by a society to set apart

ethnic groups

African Americans are an example of a(n)

ethnic group

Native Americans are an example of a

ethnic group

Chinese Americans are an example of a

ethnic group

Italian Americans, Jewish Americans, and Norwegian Americans are all examples of a (an):

ethnic groups

What group is currently the largest racial minority in the United States?

Black Americans

The distinction between ethnic and racial minorities is not always

clear cut

Ethnic minorities, such as Latinos, may have obvious______differences set them apart from other residents of the U.S.


Despite categorization problems, sociologists continue to feel that the distinction between race and an ethnicity is_____significant.


A trip to an ethnic bakery is an example of______ethnicity.


A Black person trying to act White is an example of______ethnicity


A Latino intentionally misrepresenting his heritage is an example of_______ethnicity


During World War II the United States________lift or loosen restrictive immigration quotas in order to allow Jewish refugees to escape the terror of the Nazi regime

refused to

The S.S. St. Louis, with more than 900 Jewish refugees on board, was_______permission to dock in the United States in 1939 because of restrictive immigration quotas


The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act:

Outlawed the hiring of illegal aliens

Immigrations laws in the United States underwent a major revision during the_____leading to an increase in the proportion of immigrants from Asia and Latin America


_______is approximately the number of illegal immigrants present within the United States at any given time.

11 million

The________sociological perspective would likely suggest that immigration relieves labor shortages in the receiving nation and it relieves economies unable to support large numbers of people in the sending nations


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