Terms in this set (71)

Food that naturally contain substances that promote health and protect against disease. They provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition.
EX: unmodified whole foods, such as broccoli and fish

some foods fortified with nutrients or enhanced with phytochemicals or other substances are also classified as functional foods


TABLE 1.1
Functional foods provide benefits beyond their nutrients
FOOD POTENTIAL HEALTH BENEFIT
Blueberries May reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer.10,11
Breakfast cereal with added flaxseed Helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and the overall risk of heart disease.12
Chocolate May help reduce blood pressure and other risk factors for heart disease.13
Garlic Helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and the overall risk of heart disease.14
Kale May reduce the risk of age-related blindness (macular degeneration).15
Margarine with added plant sterols Reduces blood cholesterol levels.16
Nuts May reduce the risk of heart disease.17
Oatmeal Helps reduce blood cholesterol.18
Orange juice with added calcium Helps prevent osteoporosis.
Salmon Reduces the risk of heart disease.19
Green tea May reduce the risk of certain types of cancer.20
Whole-grain bread Helps reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, obesity, and diabetes.21
What Determines Food Choices?
Do you eat oranges to boost your vitamin C intake or ice cream to add a little calcium to your diet? Probably not. We need these nutrients to survive, but we generally choose foods for reasons other than the nutrients they contain. Sometimes we choose a food simply because it is put in front of us; often our choices also depend on what we have learned to eat, what is socially acceptable in our cultural heritage or religion, what we think is healthy, or what our personal convictions—such as environmental consciousness or vegetarianism—demand. Tradition and values may dictate what foods we consider appropriate, but individual preferences for taste, smell, appearance, and texture affect which foods we actually consume. All these factors are involved in food choices because food does more than meet our physiological requirements. It also provides sensory pleasure and helps meet our social and emotional needs (Figure 1.3).
Nutrition InSight
Figure 1.3 Food choices
The food choices we make are influenced by society, culture, attitudes, and emotions as well as by food availability.
We use food as reward and punishment. A well-behaved child may be rewarded with an ice cream cone, while a child who misbehaves may be sent to bed without dessert. We also use food to commemorate milestones such as birthdays and anniversaries.

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Food can provide comfort and security. "Comfort foods" such as hot tea, chicken soup, and chocolate help us to feel better when we are sick, cold, tired, or lonely.

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We can choose only from foods that are available to us. What is available is affected by season, geography, economics, health, and living conditions. In many parts of the world, food choices are limited to foods produced locally, but in more developed regions, many nonnative and seasonal foods, such as these grapes, are available year-round because they can be stored and shipped from distant locations.

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Food preferences and eating habits are learned as part of an individual's family, cultural, national, and social background. In many parts of the world, insects, such as these cicadas and grasshoppers, are considered a treat, but in U.S. culture, insects are considered food contaminants, and most people would refuse to eat them.

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For an adolescent, stopping for pizza after school may be part of being accepted by his or her peers. Food is the centerpiece of everyday social interactions. We meet friends for dinner or a cup of coffee. The family dinner table is a focal point for communication, where experiences of the day are shared.

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Often people's attitudes about what foods they think are good for them or are good for the environment affect what they choose. For example, you may choose green tea to increase your intake of cancerfighting antioxidants or organic produce because you are concerned about the environmental impact of pesticides.

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CBS Video: Eating Locally
This video explores the concept of eating foods that are locally farmed, fished, or raised.

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Discuss: Reflect on your current food choices. What are six factors that influence your food choices? Would you rate them as having a positive influence or a negative one? Why?
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