106 terms


Body weight that is more than 20% above the average of a person of a given age and height is called
At approximately what age should a child be able to manipulate objects with almost as much capability as an adult?
11 to 12 years old
What is one significant reason for the advances in fine motor skills in children 6 to 8 years old?
The amount of myelin in the brain increases to protect, insulate, and surround the nerve cells,raising the speed at which electrical impulses travel between neurons.
Children ages 5 to 9 are most likely to be killed
in an automobile accident.
Approximately how many children and adolescents have a psychological disorder that produces some impairment?
1 in 5
What percentage of preteens suffers with depression?
What percentage of children ages 9 and 17 suffer with an anxiety disorder?
Which of the following is the most likely reason why children's psychological disorders are neglected?
Most children do not exhibit symptoms entirely consistent with those of adults.
What is the term for a difficulty in seeing that may include blindness or partial sightedness?
visual impairment
If a person has the inability to see even at 20 feet what a typical person can see at 200 feet (20/200) after correction (corrective lenses, etc.), this is known as
What is the term for speech that deviates so much from the speech of others that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or produces maladjustment in the speaker?
speech impairment
What is the term for a substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech and is the most common speech impairment?
What is the definition of a learning disability?
A significant discrepancy between the child's actual academic performance and his/her apparent potential to learn.
What is the term for a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity?
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
What are some common treatments for ADHD?
1. behavior therapy that includes use of rewards
2. dietary changes to address fatty acids and/or food additives in the child's diet
3. increased structure in the classroom and home environment to address organizational issues
If a preschool child thinks largely in an egocentric manner, then from Piaget's perspective we would say that the child is in the ________ stage.
What is the term that refers to the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic?
concrete operational
Concrete operational thought involves applying _____ to solve problems.
logical operations
What is the term for the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account?
In the information processing approach, what is the term for the ability to record, store, and retrieve information?
What is the term for an understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle childhood?
. If a middle-school-age child employs conscious, intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive processing, this is called use of
control strategies
Which of the following is a noteworthy educational innovation, based upon Vygotsky's work, where children work together in groups to achieve a common goal?
cooperative learning
Which of the following is a noteworthy educational innovation, based upon Vygotsky's work, where reading comprehension strategies are taught, allowing the student to take on the role of the teacher?
reciprocal teaching
What is the term for an understanding of one's own use of language?
metalinguistic awareness
What is the term for the use of more than one language?
According to Wechsler, what is the term for the capacity to understand the world, think with rationality, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges?
Who is the psychologist that used a pragmatic, trial-and-error approach to psychological measurement that continues to serve as the predominant approach to test construction today?
What is the term for a measure of intelligence that takes into account a student's mental and chronological age?
intelligence quotient
What is the name of the test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance (or nonverbal) skills, as well as a total score?
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC IV)
. Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory?
fluid intelligence
Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations?
crystallized intelligence
According to Robert Sternberg, who developed the _____________, intelligence consists of three aspects of information processing.
triarchic theory of intelligence
The book The Bell Curve argues that the average 15-point difference between Caucasian Americans' and African Americans' IQs is primarily due to
What is the term for the educational setting that is most similar to that of children without special needs?
least restrictive environment
Which of the following is the term for an educational approach in which exceptional children are integrated to the extent possible into the traditional educational system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternatives?
If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range of 50 or 55 to 70, this is known as
mild mental retardation.
If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range of around 35 or 40 to 50 or 55, this is known as
moderate mental retardation.
If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range of around 20 or 25 to 35 or 40, this is known as
severe mental retardation
If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range below 20 or 25, this is known as
profound mental retardation.
. Children who show evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership, or specific academic fields are referred to as
gifted and talented.
According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which of the following stages reflects concrete interests of the individual considered in terms of rewards and punishments?
Pre-conventional morality
According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which of the following stages reflects a person's approach to moral problems as a member of society, where the person is interested in pleasing others by acting as a good member of society?
conventional morality
According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, what stage reflects a person's use of moral principles, which are seen as broader than those of any particular society?
Post-conventional morality
Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg found that ____________ is relatively rare.
Post-conventional morality
. One aspect of the transformation from childhood to adolescence involves a period of very rapid growth in height and weight called
growth spurt.
Which of the following terms describes the period in which the sexual organs mature?
Which gland in the body signals the brain and other glands in children's bodies to begin producing sex hormones?
Male sex hormones are called __________, while female sex hormones are called
androgens; estrogens.
What is the term for the onset of menstruation?
What is the most obvious sign of puberty in girls?
onset of menarche
When physical characteristics, such as early onset of menstruation or increased height and weight (due to better nutrition) change over the course of several generations, this is an example of a
secular trend.
The characteristics associated with the development of the organs and structures of the body that directly relate to reproduction are called
primary sex characteristics.
The visible signs of sexual maturity that do not directly involve the sex organs are called
secondary sex characteristics.
The surge in hormone production that triggers the beginning of adolescence may lead to rapid mood swings. Boys may have feelings of ________, while girls may feel ______
anger and annoyance; anger and depression.
. During the teenage years, the average girl requires ________ calories a day, and the average boy requires ________.
2,200; 2,800.
What is the ratio of adolescents who can be classified as obese?
1 in 20
Obese adolescents stand a(n) _____ chance of becoming obese adults.
Obese adolescents stand a(n) _____ chance of becoming obese adults.
Which of the following is the term for a severe eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior and appearance, which may become skeletal, are out of the ordinary?
anorexia nervosa
Which of the following terms relates to an eating disorder characterized by binges on large quantities of food, followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives?
The part of the brain that allows people to think, evaluate, and make complex judgments in a uniquely human way is called the
prefrontal cortex.
Which of the following is the most likely reason for adolescent impulsivity and risky behavior(s)?
the adolescent prefrontal cortex is biologically immature
. How many hours of sleep do older adolescents require for optimal functioning?
9 hours per night; they need to go to bed later and to sleep later in the morning.
According to Piaget, the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly is called the
formal operational stage.
According to researchers, what is the percentage of high school seniors and eighth grade students, respectively, who have used marijuana in the past year?
50%; 20%
Drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them, are known as
addictive drugs.
What percentage of college students report having an alcoholic drink in the past 30 days?
Approximately what percentage of high school seniors report having tried alcohol by the end of high school?
For men, binge drinking is a problem and is defined as
5 or more drinks in one sitting.
For women, binge drinking is a problem and is defined as
4 or more drinks in one sitting.
A person with alcohol problems who has learned to depend on alcohol and is unable to control his/her drinking is a(n)
According to the World Health Organization, how many of the world's people will die prematurely in the 21st century due to the effects of smoking?
1 million
Piaget proposed that children reach the formal operational stage of development around age
While Piaget proposed that formal operational thought is not fully settled in until around 15 years of age, evidence suggests that some people never fully employ formal operational thinking. Studies show that only _________ of college students and adults achieve formal operational thinking, and other estimates run as low as _________.
40% to 60%; 25%.
The state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed as focused on oneself is referred to as
adolescent egocentrism.
Which of the following is a type of thinking that is evident in both early childhood and adolescence?
The view held by some adolescents that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else is called
personal fable.
. Because independent measures of achievement, such as SAT scores, have not risen in the past decade, but overall grades in school have risen over the past decade, the most likely explanation for this is
instructors have become more lenient, awarding higher grades for the same performance,
known as "grade inflation."
Which of the following countries' students has the highest academic achievement in math and science in the world?
Which of the following students is likely to demonstrate the greatest academic achievement?
Asian American
What is a basic requirement of the No Child Left Behind Act passed by Congress in 2002?
Every U.S. state must design and administer achievement tests that students must pass in order to graduate from high school.
What was the result of a study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation regarding instant messaging (IMing)?
Young people spend an average of 6.5 hours a day with media.
While it is clear that the Internet is having an impact on education, schools should consider changing their curricula to include specific instruction in a key skill for deriving value from the Internet, specifically
the ability to search, choose, and integrate information in order to create new knowledge.
The phenomenon known as the "digital divide" is
the challenge involving socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity, where poorer adolescents and members of minority groups have less access to computers than more affluent adolescents.
What is the percentage of teenagers who experience major depression, in which their psychological disorder is such that the depression is severe and lingers for a long time?
The rate of adolescent suicide in the United States has _____ in the last 30 years.
Why do adolescent boys succeed in committing suicide more often than adolescent girls?
Boys tend to use more violent means, like guns, to attempt suicide.
Males only produce androgens, while females only produce estrogens.
All young females begin menarche at exactly the same time.
In poorer developing countries, menstruation begins earlier than in more economically advantaged countries.
Over the past 100 years, girls in the United States and other cultures have been experiencing puberty at later ages.
Menstruation is the only change in puberty for females.
Boys' and girls' sexual maturation follows the same time course of development.
The two extremes of nutritional disorders in teenagers are obesity and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia.
While anorexia nervosa can be deadly, bulimia, although problematic for nutritional reasons, does not have the potential for death.
Anorexia nervosa is only seen in adolescent girls.
Anorexia nervosa is prevalent all over the world.
The prefrontal cortex is not fully developed in a person until around his/her early 20s.
Data over the past few years indicates that drug use overall, including marijuana use, has declined
Male athletes are likely to demonstrate a lower percentage of alcohol consumption because of health reasons.
Alcoholism has no genetic component.
When U.S. students' math and science scores are compared to other students in the world, their math scores fall within the top third in the world.
Adolescent boys report experiencing depression at approximately the same level as girls.
The rate of adolescent suicide has tripled in the last 30 years.
Adolescent boys commit suicide at a higher rate than girls; however, adolescent girls attempt suicide more often than boys.
The influence of one's peers to conform to their behavior and attitudes is called peer pressure.