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J201 Midterm 1
Terms in this set (78)
-media is the environment we live in
-professionalization of human communication
-rise of mass scale and extent of communication
-personalization of media originating w/in mass media system
media shapes and frames the processes and discourse of communication within society
is the process by which people exchange information, feelings, and meaning through verbal and non-verbal messages: it is face-to-face communication
process by which a person, a group of people, or large organization creates a message and transmits it through some type of medium to a large, anonymous, hetergeneous audience.
functions of mass communication
1. reach mass audience
3. consumed by public
mediation becomes part of our experience of "real" things--forces shape perceptions of experience. ex: Humanitarian crisis in Europe-images
feeling of individualization in an increasingly interdependent world. -rejects idea of true personalization as the personalized technologies continue to carry out mass media functions.
modes of communication
interpersonal, mediated, and mass communication
a conversation between two people
communication through a medium-via instant messaging/telephone
communication transmitted to a large # of viewers-news anchor reporting news to camera transmitted to many
strong effect model
people believe everything fed to them by the media
fear of population absorbing wrongful ideologies portrayed in movies, media, ect.
ex: Hollywood directors black-listed for "un-american" activities.
types of media effect
what we learn through media
ex: Sesame Street
emotional-increasing/decreasing liking for something based on representation
brain shift in states-responses such as increase pulse from excitement
combination of cognitive and affective-built on knowledge but can change
repeating behaviors-concern with children watching violent TV shows and behaviors translated to violent actions
hypodermic needle/magic bullet theory
the idea that people cannot resist the messages infused in them by the media.
-theorized by early social scientists
-passively taking in information
payne fund studies
in early 30s, there was a study to see what effect movies that were hypersexualized and violent had on children. change in attitudes and behaviors varied, not uniform effects
radio panics america (late 30s)
-adaptation of novel "the war of the worlds" broadcasted on radio
-caused mass hysteria
-program normally doesn't have commercial interruptions which added credibility
factors that potentially lead to radio panics america
-more religious thought real
-more depressed likely to think it was real
why we fight films--central findings
-important acquisition of knowledge
-limited changes in opinion
-no changes in motivation
study of how media influences the electoral process/political predispositions. media reinforces beliefs
limited media effects paradigm
other things influence perceptions other than media.
-not being force fed information like the magic bullet effect suggests
-not everyone is effected in the same way by media
agenda setting theory
describes the "ability [of the news media] to influence the salience of topics on the public agenda." That is, if a news item is covered frequently and prominently, the audience will regard the issue as more important.
refers to aspects of individual lives based on the experiences of others as portrayed by the environment
example of pseudo-environment
divorced from direct experience(only seen through media)
--knowing what it feels like to watch someone die in front of you
Lang's study of MacArthur Parade
-media forces attention to certain issues/images
-presenting objects and suggesting what individuals should think about/feel/know
agenda building (how news agendas are set)
1. powerful political and social actors and agents
2. sociological factors related to news and orgs-how news orgs are funded
3. professional norms
4. ideological factors(owners and practitioners)
agenda setting function
-McCombs and Shaw
Chapel Hill voters queried before 1968 presidential election to identify and rank issues of importance to them-almost identical agendas for both public and news media
experimental manipulation of public's agenda
-Lyengar and Kinder
major study conducted in a laboratory setting where researchers manipulated versions of newscasts presented to different groups of viewers.
agenda setting limitations
-obtrusiveness of issue/controversy
-political conversation--more limited for those who discuss politics frequently
-personal goals and motivations--education level plays a role in media effect
-declining trust in media--critical of content->trust less
agenda setting challenges
-new media environment--social media, blogs, online news
-issue public--people who are heavily involved in an issue, don't care about other issues
-partisanship--prejudice in favor of a particular cause
cultural indicators project
• Institutional analysis (How are messages
produced and distributed).
• Message system analysis (What is the
recurring media content).
• Cultivation analysis (How television
exposure molds perceptions about the
cultivation of global attitudes
• Australians exposed to U.S. TV perceive Australia
as a more dangerous place to live.
• South Koreans and Japanese heavy viewers of
U.S. TV have more liberal values about women
• Heavy viewing of U.S. TV in India resulted in
feelings of deprivation and dissatisfaction.
• Israeli viewers of American television gave
estimations of occupations according to TV
-humans inhabit a world of stories told and retold
-TV centralized and standardized system of storytelling, coordinated by the ad market
we believe the world is more like what we see on TV
-does not privilege the impact of one specific show/production quality/contingent(unpredictable) on audience interpretations
selection by journalists on what to cover pulled from actual reality
notion that world is much meaner and more dangerous than it actually is
Gamson on framing
Central organizing idea or story line that provides meaning.
Goffman on framing
We actively classify, organize, and interpret our experiences to make sense of them. The "schemata of interpretation," which are labeled "frames," enable individuals "to locate, perceive, identify, and label"
Goffman on framing
"The basic frameworks of understanding available in our
society for making sense out of events."
Gitlin on framing
Frames enable processing of large amounts of information quickly and routinely package the information for efficient story telling. Persistent selection, emphasis, and exclusion.
framing as perspective
Placing information in a unique context so that certain elements of the issue get a greater allocation of an individual's cognition. consequence--elements become important in influencing individual's judgement.
framing as foundation
Schemata of interpretation that can be applied to a particular event. In doing so the event is made meaningful. Streams of sensory input are organized according to a preexisting organization into "something."
building of frames is constrained by
-societal norms, values, and culture
-pressure of prevailing frames
use of different language and graphics to frame a story, tells what to think
example of framing
soviet fighter plane shooting down korean airline (KAL)
--framed as attack, focus on victims and loved ones, humanizing
US navy ship shooting down iran air flight
--framed as tragedy, "what went wrong?"
types of frames
-Gains versus losses: 90% effective/10% ineffective
-Episodic (specific event) versus thematic (reported within general context).
-Societal benefits versus personal benefits.
-Strategy versus issue.
framing main points
-Frames highlight certain information, that then becomes central in our understanding and decision making processes.
-Effective frames define a problem, suggest its cause, it solution and who is responsible to fix it.
-Frames without counter frames, that resonate with prevailing frames are easier to adopt.
-Framing goes well beyond telling us what to think about, to telling us what to think...
the process in which the media attend to some issues and not others and thereby alter the standards by which people evaluate election candidates. focus on specific things so consumers passively overlook certain qualities
example of priming
forced to look at safety over high cost of car
priming activation evidence
• Thinking depressing thoughts can cause feelings of depression.
• Exposure to aggression can produce feelings of anger.
• Watching a love scene can awaken memories of similar emotions.
• Explicit versus implicit measurement
① Network activation dissipates relatively fast (need for constant repetition).
② The role of secondary appraisals that can override priming effects (this serves to explain why priming does not always result in behavior).
③ Moderately sophisticated viewers more easily primed by media than the most or least sophisticated ones.
priming main points
① To make judgments we don't rely on all available information but rather on information that is accessible.
② Media messages can activate neural networks that make us evaluate in a certain way and not in others.
③ Priming activation is ephemeral and thus requires repetition, or "chronic " activation.
④ Priming activation can be "balanced" through reasoning.
presumed media influence example
"don't smoke!" leads people to believe that everyone smokes so they should too
third person effect
hypothesis predicts that people tend to perceive that mass media messages have a greater effect on others than on themselves, based on personal biases. Because of this perception, people tend to take action to counteract the messages' influence.
PMI main points
① Media can have effects that are not direct but rather indirect (because we think they are having an effect).
② Third-person perceptions are ubiquitous and can lead to attitudes and behaviors.
③ Presumed influence of media on others may lead us to change our behaviors.
④ Most of us live in worlds of perception not fact. Thus the importance of perceptions...
presumed media influence
makes people attempt to "correct" perceived "wrongs" by voicing their own opinions in the public sphere.
Tendency to interpret, favor and recall information that confirms what we already believe.
a statement that appears to have some kind of strong in-built emotional, generalized feeling against a group of people
hostile media phenomena
an idea that the media is always against/biased against you
example of hostile media phenomena
mass killing in 1982 in Beirut
pro-arab v. pro-israel
--both sides believed the media was biased against them and both groups remembered different things about incident
example of cultivation
overestimating crime statistics and underestimating number of old people in society due to poor health conditions
example of mean-world syndrome
australians watching U.S. crime tv cultivate an idea that australia is a much less safe place
spiral of silence
the tendency for people to remain silent when they feel that their views are in opposition to the majority view on a subject.
media focuses attention
media tells people what to think about.
-level of concern is typically correlated to amount of coverage received
example of when media focuses attention
coverage of economy implies pressing issue in nation
How are Agenda Setting, Framing Theory and Priming related?
•Agenda Setting: WHAT issues to think about
•Priming: WHAT to think about when evaluating an issue
•Framing: HOW to think about issues
premise of framing theory
Premise: the exact same information presented in different ways can impact audiences' choices and evaluations. "It's not what you say, it's how you say it."
similarities between agenda setting and priming
-Both involve selection (by the media) and salience (in the audience)
-Accessibility of concepts in the audience's memory
-Agenda setting: mass media makes some issues salient in audience's minds
-Priming: mass media shapes the considerations that audiences take into account when making judgments about issues
• Provides boundaries to the problem.
• Signals the cause of the problem.
• Suggest how to solve the problem.
• Implies who should solve it.
• Generates a sense of us & them.
example of framing(societal benefits v. personal benefits)
"this bulb could save you up to $20 and stop my ice caps from receding. save money and listen to the earth."
why third person effect occurs
for ego enhancement/biased optimism
states that media images stimulate related thoughts in the minds of audience members
priming main point
we rely on information that is easily accessible, mental shortcuts.
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