Taylor: Fundamentals of Nursing Chapter 38
Oxygenation and Perfusion
Terms in this set (80)
small air sacs at the end of the terminal bronchioles that are the site of gas exchange
a temporary imbalance between the amount of oxygen needed by the heart and the amount delivered to the heart muscles
arterial blood gas (ABG)
a diagnostic test examining arterial blood; used to determine the pressure exerted by oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
incomplete expansion or collapse of a part of the lungs
upper chambers of the heart
a bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles, causing them to contract
atrioventricular (AV) node:
a node of specialized heart muscle located in the septal wall of the right atrium; receives impulses from the sinoatrial node and transmits them to the atrioventricular bundle
slow rate of breathing
those heard over the trachea; high in pitch and intensity, with expiration being longer than inspiration
medication that relaxes contractions of smooth muscles of the bronchioles
normal breath sounds heard over the upper anterior chest and intercostal area
a method to monitor ventilation and, indirectly, blood flow through the lungs
relating to the heart and the lungs
relating to the heart and blood vessels
microscopic, hair-like projections that propel mucus toward the upper airway so that it can be expectorated
fine, crackling sounds made as air moves through wet secretions in the lungs
tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is established
dry powder inhaler (DPI)
types of breath-activated delivery methods for inhaled medications
difficult or labored breathing
an abnormal cardiac rhythm
graphic record produced by the electrocardiograph
polyvinyl-chloride airway that is inserted through the nose or the mouth into the trachea, using a laryngoscope as a guide
act of breathing out; synonym is exhalation
blood that develops in the pleural space
condition in which there is more than the normal amount of air entering and leaving the lungs
decreased rate or depth of air movement into the lungs
deficient oxygenation of blood
inadequate amount of oxygen available to the cells
act of breathing in; synonym is inhalation
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the circulating blood and tissue cells
deficiency of blood in a particular area
metered-dose inhaler (MDI)
instrument that delivers a controlled dose of medication to narrowed airways with each compression of the canister
one type of acute coronary syndrome characterized by the death of heart tissue due to lack of oxygen; also known as a heart attack
disposable, plastic device that delivers oxygen via two protruding prongs for insertion into the nostrils
instrument that disperses fine particles of medication into the deeper passages of the respiratory tract where absorption occurs
the process of providing cells life-sustaining oxygen
another name for the sinoatrial (SA) node; initiates the transmission of electrical impulses, causing contraction of the heart at regular intervals
process by which oxygenated blood passes through body tissues
fluid in the pleural space
pleural friction rub
continuous, dry grating sound caused by inflammation of pleural surfaces and loss of lubricating pleural fluid
air in the pleural space
movement of air into and out of the lungs
noninvasive technique that measures the oxygen saturation (SaO2) of arterial blood
gas exchange between the atmospheric air in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries
sinoatrial (SA) node
a mass of tissue in the upper right atrium, just below the opening of the superior vena cava, that initiates the transmission of electrical impulses, causing contraction of the heart at regular intervals; also known as pacemaker
instrument used to measure lung capacities and volumes; one type is used to encourage deep breathing (incentive spirometry)
respiratory secretion expelled by coughing or clearing the throat
detergent-like phospholipid that reduces surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli
rapid rate of breathing
aspiration of fluid or air from the pleural spacev
artificial opening made in the trachea through which a tracheostomy tube is inserted
lower chambers of the heart
continuous, high-pitched squeak or musical sound made as air moves through narrowed or partially obstructed airway passages
the nose, pharynx, larynx, and epiglottis
What is the upper airway composed of?
warm, filter, and humidify inspired air
What is the primary purpose of the upper airway?
the tracheobronchial tree, includes the trachea, right and left main stem bronchi, segmental bronchi, and terminal bronchioles
What is the lower airway known as and what is it composed of?
conduction of air, mucociliary clearance, and production of pulmonary surfactant
What is the purpose of the tracheobronchial tree?
the ease with which the lungs can be inflated
What is lung compliance?
the result of any impediment or obstruction that air meets as it moves through the airway
What is airway resistance?
What is the respiration rate for an infant (Birth-1yr)?
What is the respiration rate for a child 1-5 years old?
What is the respiration rate for a child 6-12 years old?
What is the respiration rate for an aged adult (65+yrs)?
In utero between 34 and 36 weeks
When is surfactant formed?
Which class of drugs depresses the medulla respiratory center?
In healthy adults what rate do respirations occur?
extra, abnormal sounds of breathing
What is considered a normal SpO2 value?
< or = to 90%
When is a SpO2 considered abnormal?
Which cough medicine should someone with glaucoma avoid?
1-2 L/min = 23%-30%
3-5 L/min = 30%-40%
6 L/min = 42%
6-8 L/min = 40%-60% (5 L/min is minimum setting)
Partial rebreather mask
8-11 L/min = 50%-75%
12 L/min = 80%-100%
4-10 L/min = 24%-40%
Small pulse pressure
Increased pulse rate
A nurse caring for a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) knows that hypoxia may occur in patients with respiratory problems. What are signs of this serious condition?
When a patient vomits upon insertion of an oropharyngeal airway, the nurse should immediately position the patient on his or her side to prevent aspiration, remove the oral airway, and suction the mouth if needed.
A nurse is inserting an oropharyngeal airway for a patient who vomits when it is inserted. Which action would be the first that should be taken by the nurse related to this occurrence?
When a chest tube becomes separated from the drainage device, the nurse should first put on gloves, open a sterile bottle of normal saline or water, and insert the chest tube into the bottle without contaminating the chest tube. This creates a water seal until a new drainage unit can be attached. Then the nurse should assess vital signs and notify the physician.
A nurse providing care of a patient's chest drainage system observes that the chest tube has become separated from the drainage device. What would be the first action that should be taken by the nurse in this situation?
The cylinder must always be checked before use to ensure that enough oxygen is available for the patient. It is unsafe to use a cylinder that reads 500 psi or less because not enough oxygen remains for a patient transfer. A cylinder that is not secured properly may result in injury to the patient. Oxygen flow is discontinued by turning the valve clockwise until it is tight.
What action does the nurse perform to follow safe technique when using a portable oxygen cylinder?
When planning care for a patient with chronic lung disease who is receiving oxygen through a nasal cannula, what does the nurse expect?
A rate higher than 3 L/min may destroy the hypoxic drive that stimulates respirations in the medulla in a patient with chronic lung disease. Oxygen delivered at low rates does not necessarily have to be humidified, and arterial blood gases are not required at regular intervals to determine the flow rate.
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