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the passing of physical characteristics from parent to offspring


the scientific study of heredity


a different form of the same characteristic or brown eyes


the part of the DNA that controls a particular trait


condensed threads of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes like beads on a string


the different forms of a gene


the allele combination for a trait


the physcial appearance for a trait

Dominant allele

an allele that you need only one of to have the trait (Capital letter)

Recessive allele

an allele that you must have 2 of to have the trait (lowercase letter)


plant that has shown the same characteristics for many generations


having 2 different alleles; same as hybrid

Punnett Square

a chart that shows all th possible combinations of alleles for a genetic cross


a process of cell division in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to make sex cells

Sex cell

a cell from either parent that contains half the DNA

Protein synthesis

DNA and RNA work together to make proteins

Where the production of protein occurs

on a ribosome in the cytoplasm


single stranded nucleic acid that comes in 2 forms: messenger and transfer


double stranded nucleic acid in the nucleus that contains genes


when neither allele is dominant, so both traits are expressed

Galapagos Islands

where Charles Darwin travelled and saw finches

Origin of Species

book written by Charles Darwin

Natural Selection

the idea that individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species

3 factors that affect natural selection

1. overproduction 2. variation 3. competition


form when organisms die and are buried by sediment

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