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25 terms

Science Midterm pt. 2

STUDY
PLAY
Heredity
the passing of physical characteristics from parent to offspring
Genetics
the scientific study of heredity
Trait
a different form of the same characteristic ex.blue or brown eyes
Gene
the part of the DNA that controls a particular trait
Chromosome
condensed threads of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes like beads on a string
Allele
the different forms of a gene
Genotype
the allele combination for a trait
Phenotype
the physcial appearance for a trait
Dominant allele
an allele that you need only one of to have the trait (Capital letter)
Recessive allele
an allele that you must have 2 of to have the trait (lowercase letter)
Purebred
plant that has shown the same characteristics for many generations
Heterozygous
having 2 different alleles; same as hybrid
Punnett Square
a chart that shows all th possible combinations of alleles for a genetic cross
Meiosis
a process of cell division in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to make sex cells
Sex cell
a cell from either parent that contains half the DNA
Protein synthesis
DNA and RNA work together to make proteins
Where the production of protein occurs
on a ribosome in the cytoplasm
RNA
single stranded nucleic acid that comes in 2 forms: messenger and transfer
DNA
double stranded nucleic acid in the nucleus that contains genes
Codominance
when neither allele is dominant, so both traits are expressed
Galapagos Islands
where Charles Darwin travelled and saw finches
Origin of Species
book written by Charles Darwin
Natural Selection
the idea that individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species
3 factors that affect natural selection
1. overproduction 2. variation 3. competition
Fossils
form when organisms die and are buried by sediment