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McDonough Test 3
Terms in this set (88)
How did the U.S and its government change in the late 1700's and early 1800's?
-federal government strengthened
-US dealt with international wars
-government was questioned and tested many times
What were some of Thomas Jefferson's accomplishments?
He reduced taxes, reduced the military and balanced the budget and bought all the land that France claimed in America (The Louisiana Purchase)
What was the Era of Good Feeling?
the time after the war of 1812 when most Americans were agreeing on political matters. all three sections of the country agreed on policies that strenthened federal power
Who is Henry Clay?
Kentucky-support of the war of 1812, he support strong federal government and supported protective tariffs and great compromiser
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
The Missouri Compromise in 1821, the fifth President of the United States. The profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas
The Panic of 1819
Marked the end of the economic expansion that followed the War of 1812. Featured deflation, depression, bank failures, foreclosures, unemployment, a slump in agriculture and manufacturing, and overcrowded debtors' prisons.
Which of the following was an economic event that led to an expansion of voting rights in the US?
Panic of 1819
What were some problems during the panic?
Deflation, Hunger, Overcrowded Prisions, and people resented tariffs
Legacy of War of 1812
Broke strength of Natives, American manufacturing and industry sparked. Realized that the U.S. was strong and could prosper.
An action by a state that cancels a federal law to which the state objects
Formal withdrawal of states or regions from a nation
How did both of these beliefs develop concurrently, and did one become of greater importance in the economics and politics of the periods?
The result of the War of 1812 led to a strong sense of nationalism which was fueled by Monroe and the Republican party, however at the same time the North specifically New England experienced a large increase in industry which formed an identity that rivaled that of the South's mainly agricultural economy. Although nationalism and sectionalism developed concurrently, it was nationalism that became of greater importance because the unification spurred by pride for the U.S allowed the Era of Good Feelings to occur.
Era of Good Feelings -Pros
Nationalism, optimism, Development of "American"
Era of Good Feelings- Cons
Panic of 1819, Missouri Compromise, Sectionalism
What are some reasons for Nationalism?
-Success in War of 1812
-Henry Clay's American System
-Boost in federal power from judiciary
-art and literature flourish
Henry Clay's American System
1. Protective Tariffs 2. National Bank 3. System of roads, canals, and rivers 4. Forms of transportation 5. Economic growth 6. 2nd Bank of US to promote industry/a stronger economy
patriotism; an appropriate pride in your country and what makes your country unique
emphasis on domestic control of the economy
A sovereign state represents a people—Those speaking the same language, sharing traditions and customs
-Believed that tariffs protected American industries
-Need National Bank
-Need to use tax money to build roads
-State bank would protect peoples needs
mostly farmers/ emerging economy and supported internal improvements
Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," spoils system, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.
Indian removal act
a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled to the Indian Territory.
The Nullification Crisis
South Carolina threatened to secede if the tariff laws were enforced.
John C. Calhoun
advocate for state's rights, limited government, opposed the new tariff and favored nullification
The Whig Party
political party oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats. stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and wanted a strong federal government to manage the economy.
Tariff of 1828
agreed to lower the tariff rates
the president can use the army to compel compliance with federal tax in South Carolina
The Second Great Awakening
A wave of religious enthusiasm that spread across America between 1800 and 1830
Charles Grandison Finney
An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time and was against slavery and alcohol.
reformers urged the federal government to ban all business transactions and delivery on Sunday, the day of rest
Seperation of Church and state
The concept that religion and government should remain seperate. The principle is the basis for the establishment clause of the First Amendment.
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
Formed in Boston 1826, signed pledges against drinking, and led to the passage of prohibitory laws in some states
Maine was the 1st states to pass what type of law?
restricting the sale of alcohol
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education
19th Century Reforms
Free Public Education and Temperance
Utopian societies, 2nd great awakening, abolition movement
lead slave revolt and was executed
laws were then passed that forbidden to gather in groups
Underground Rail Road
A series of escape routes used by slaves escaping the south
escaped slavery and helped free other slaves
William Lloyd Garrison
abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer.
Angelina and Sarah Grimke
Daughters of a South Carolina slaveholder that were antislavery. Fought for women's rights and abolition, "Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!"
Henry David Thoreau
was AGAINST a government that supported slavery. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax which he felt supported slavery
A nonviolent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws.
1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress
How did Finney believe a religious revival would benefit "back sliders"?
Because he used his voice and to reform society
What new churches arose during the 1800's?
Mormon, Protestan, Catholic, and Judaism
Why do you think religion sparked such favor and caused attention?
it built a new religion and believe only religion was great and felt the pope would take advantage over the government
What were areas that reformers tried to improve in 1800's?
Reformers worked to improve living, conditions, labor laws, the educational system, and the medical profession. Reformers also sought to gain more rights for women and
What beliefs might reformers have shared?
they shared their views of slavery and women's right went to gatherings to gain support
Angelina Grimke vs. John C. Calhoun
Angelina- against slavery
John- for slavery and believe it was vital for america
When did slavery end?
1865/ After civil wars
How did the Second Great Awakening affect life in the USA?
church membership grew and many people were inspired to try to improve/reform society
abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
two leading women abolitionists, attended the World Anti-Slavery Convention and organized a convention for women's rights held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848
Seneca Falls Convention
the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
Declaration of Sentiments
declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
Married Women's Property Act
property rights for women
Why did Sojourner Truth's name make her speeches more appealing?
she was named truth because she spoke the truth which was more appealing; female fredrick douglas
In what areas did women work for reform?
factories and mills law degree tried to pursue husbands
Why did female abolitionist compare themselves to slaves?
couldn't vote, own property, or have social rights
On what point did actuates in the early women's movement disagree?
describe the event that led Lucretia Matt and Elizabeth to organize the Seneca Fall Treaty?
they were to be quieted @ the convention and were publicly humiliated
what goals did dorothea dix work to achieve
Dorothea Dix worked to improve conditions for prisoners and the mentally ill and helped create many mental hospitals.
what methods did abolitionists use to further their cause
abolitionist formed anti-slavery societies and published newspapers to further their cause
what were the goals of U.S educational reformers?
to improve public education; to train the young to be informed
what changes did Andrew Jackson bring to American political life?
-expanded voting rights to all white males (whether or not they owned property
How did Andrew Jackson benefit from the expansion of democracy?
it allowed more farmers and "working class" people to vote for representatives in Congress, which meant that more of Jackson's policies would be pushed through.
Why did many white people want Indians removed from the Southeast?
They wanted the resources, the land and expanding the territories they have.
How did Calhoun and Jackson differ on the issue of nullification?
Jackson believed that the Union should be preserved. Calhoun believed the opposite.
Why did Andrew Jackson oppose the Bank of the United States?
He thought it made the rich richer and was TOO powerful
Equal Access Act
This allows student religious groups to meet in high schools receiving federal funds.
Mitchell vs. Helms
Ruling allows private schools to receive federal funds for educational materials
Why did Mormon, Catholic, and Jewish Americans faced discrimination?
Majority of religion was Protestant and they had ideas against Protestant.
What did the temperance movement and the public school movement accomplish?
Temperance-restricted the limit of sale of alcohol
Education System- free, tax-supported schools
What methods did Americans use to oppose slavery?
-sabotage by slaves
-the underground railroad
-written works/public lectures by abolitionists
How did Garrison and Douglass attempt to bring about the end of slavery?
They wrote and publicly spoke about slavery to make Americans aware of how awful slavery was
Why did many northerners oppose the abolition of slavery?
They were afraid African Americans would take their jobs & move up north
What steps did American women take to advance their rights in the mid-1800's?
They held conventions and they published newspapers to try and put a voice out for themselves and motivate other women to do the same
What led to women becoming leaders of various reform movements?
began to work for expanded rights, including the right to vote. women joined churches that sponsored reform groups. Women worked to reform the treatment of the mentally ill, public education, abolition, and temperance. Women worked to reform slavery.
Martin Van Buren
the country suffered the Panic of 1837, he Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.
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