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British economist Thomas Malthus argued that

population always grew faster than the food supply.

A _____ boom in the 1770s enhanced Britain's infrastructure advantage.


In the eighteenth century, a shortage of ____ held British industry back.


Industrial growth first really accelerated in Britain during the


The tendency to hire family units in the early factories was

usually a response to the wishes of the families

The first modern factories arose in the

textile industry

All of the following were consequences of revolutionary changes in the textile industry except

a reduction in child labor

All of the following facilitated the Industrial Revolution in eighteenth-century Britain except

the extensive investment of foreign capital in Britain

The earliest steam engines were

used to pump water out of coal mines

The difficulties faced by the continental economies in their efforts to compete with the British included all of the following except the

resistance of land-owning elites

Because working conditions were poor in early textile factories, factory owners turned to

orphaned children as an important part of their work force

The major breakthrough in energy and power supplies that catalyzed the Industrial Revolution was

James Watt's steam engine

The first factories

grew out of the putting-out system

The switch from charcoal to ___ helped revolutionize the iron industry


By reducing the cost of overland freight, the railroad

created national markets

In 1860, Britain produced ___ percent of the world's output of industrial goods


The Crystal Palace exhibition of 1851 commemorated the

industrial dominance of Britain

Thomas Malthus argued that growth in ___ would always outstrip growth in the food supply


William Cockerill was

an English carpenter who built cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium

Friedrich List was an early proponent of

economic nationalism

The key development that allowed continental banks to shed their earlier conservative nature was

the establishment of limited liability investment

______ managed to raise per capital industrial levels in the nineteenth century.

All European states

In "The Condition of the Working Class in England", Engels stated that

the British middle classes were guilty of mass murder and wholesale robbery

Which of the following countries was the least industrialized in 1860?


Scholarly statistical studies of the condition of members of the British working class indicate that

the Industrial Revolution made little difference in the living standards of the working class

Most early industrialists drew on ____ for labor and capital.

family and friends

The Factory Act of 1833

limited the workday of children between 9-13 to eight hours a day

The ___ attacked factories and smashed industrial machinery


The law that outlawed labor unions and strikes in Britain was the

Combination Acts of 1799

The Mines ACt of 1842

prohibited underground work for women as well as boys under ten

Railroad construction on the continent

featured varying degrees of government involvement

In the 1760s, Monday was popularly known as ____ because so many workers took the day off

Saint Monday

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