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a virulaent plague that struck 14th century Europe

The Black death refers to:

WAs preceded by years of famine that weakened the populace

The Black Death:

noble landholders

Which social group suffered the greatest decline in power as a result of the plague?

limited wages to pre-plauge levels

The Statute of Laborers:

landed nobility and the church

What 2 groups were the traditional "containers" of monarchy?

It ended with a decisive English victory

What is not tru of the Hundred Years' War?

three times the population of England and was much richer

In the mid-fourteenth century, France had:

internal destiny

The primary reason for early French failure in the Hundred Years' War was:


The use of this medieval weapon proved to give the English the tactical advantage in the war:


The burden of the Hundred Year's War fell mostly on the:

temporal authority was "subject" to the spiritual power of the Church

The papal bul Unam Sanctum declared that:

how the papacy was held in political bondage

The phrase "Babylon Captiviy" refers to"

Charles V

The Great Schism was supported by:

deposed both the Roman and Avignon popes, and elected a new pope

In 1409 the Council of Pisa:

the Mongols

Between 1243 and 1480, Russia was ruled by:


Wealthy landowners in medieval Russia were known as:


What was the official religion of the Mongols that occupied Russia?


Which of the following cities played a key role in the trade between europe and the near east?


Social strife and competition for political power became so intense within the cities that most evolved into:

Ciompi Revolt

This occured in 1378 as a result of the unbearable conditions for those at the bottom of the society and the disruption caused by the Black Death:

orators and poets

The first humanists were:


Cosmo de' Medici brough stability to this city after his rise to power in 1434

Francesco Petrach

He was known as the "father of humanism":

Greek studies

Which of the following was the most important intellectual recovery made during the Italian Renaissance?

Vincent Van Gogh

All of the following were great masters of the High Renaissance EXCEPT:


Who is considered the "father of Renaissance painting"?

Leonardo da Vinci

His most famous painting is the Mona Lisa

include Venice despite the Papal States' anger

The Treaty of Lodi did all of the following except:

Spain; Spain won all four major battles

The Habsburg-Valoid wars were wars fought between France and:

He did not believe that the Italian political unity and independence were ends that justified any means

Which is not true of Machiavelli?


A new alliance between monarchs and this group helped break the bonds of feudal society.

ravage the nobility

King Louis XI did all except:

They were hostile to classical culture

All of the following characterized northern humanists except:

Martin Luther

Erasmus had a profound effect and influence upon this individual:


Humanism prepared the way for Protestant reforms in all of the following countries except:

Columbus expected his first landfall to be:


central Mexico

By the time of the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs ruled almost all of:

shipping, agriculture, and mining

Which of the following are the 3 major components of the colonial economy of Latin America?

Switzerland and Germany

The Reformation broke out first in the cities of:

urban society was increasingly atheistic

Contributing factors to lay criticism of the church included all of the folllowing except:

all members were expected to take special religious vows and to wear a special religious dress

which of the following statements is untrue of the ideology and practice of the Brothers of the Common Life?

Thomas a Kemis

This writer summarized the philosophy of the Brothers of the Common Life in what became the most popular religious book of the period, the Imitation of Christ:

was a son of a successful miner

Martin Luther

a remission of the temporal penalty imposed on peniments by priests as a work of satisfaction for their confessed mortal sins

an indulgence was:

sparked the Reformation in Germany

Luther's 95 theses:

by faith alone

The Freedom of a Christian, written by Martin Luther, summarized the new teaching of salvation:

no one

When German peasants revolted in 1524-1525, they won the support of:

Ulrich Zwingli

The Reformation in Zurich was led by:


Anabaptists are the 16th-century ancestors of which of the following modern groups:

the ruler of a land would determine the religion of the land

The Peace of Augsburg recognized in law what had already been established in practice,:

made Anne Boleyn's children the legitimate heirs to the throne

The Act of Succession:

the Capuchins

Recognized by the pope in 1528, this group sought to return to the original ideals of st. Francis and became popular among the ordinary people to whom they directed their ministry:

submit without question to higher church authority and spiritual direction

Ignatius of Loyola taught good Catholics to:

they completely disagreed with said sentiments

which of the following statements characterizes Protestant views of the popular anti-woman and anti-marriage literature of the Middle Ages?

spent several years as a slave

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra:

Don Quixote

Which novel is Cervantes most well known for?

the ruler of the land would determine the religion of the land

The Peace of Augsburg recognized in law what had already been established in practice:

Elizabeth I of England

The most successful politique was:

the capture of the French king Francis I at the Battle of Pavia

What sparked the first wave of Protestant persecuation in France?

the Bourbons, the Montmorency-Chatillions, and the Guises

Who were the 3 powerful families that sought the French monarchy after the death of king henry II?

one-fifteenth of the French population

Huguenots made up about:

the duke of Guise surprising a Protestant congregation in Champagne and massacring many worshipers

What event starkly marked the begining of the French wars of religion?

publicly abandoning the Protestant faith and embracing Catholicism

King Henry stunned France, Spain, and the pope by

the spanish armada was sent to invade england

Hostilities between Spain and England reached a climax in 1588 when:

a growing demand and limited supply caused prices and inflation to rise

What statement most accurately describes the general state of the Spanish economy in the late 16th and early 17th centuries?

the Meditterranean and the Turkish threat

during the first half of his reign, Philip II focused on:

Thirty-Nine Articles

Passed by Queen Elizabeth I, this was a revision of Thomas Cranmer's works that made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England

England assembled a large army that rivaled that of Spain

Which didnt contribute to the outbreak of war between England and Spain?

the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

What event immediately triggered Pope Sixtus V to give support to Spain"?

the defeat of Spanish Armada

What event weakened the Spanish dominance in europe, from which Spain never fully recovered?


Following the weaking of Spain, which nation dominated Europe approximately in the early 17th century

ruled by separate entites with their own tariffs, tolls and money

16th cenury Germany was:

CAtholice power

Bavaria was a major center of:


The thirty year's war broke out first in:


Due nto its central location, this nation had always been Europe's highway for merchants and traders going north, south, east and west:

German Calvinism

In the 1560s, Heidelberg was an intellectual center for:

Bavaria is to the Counter-Reformation as the Palastine is to PRotestantism

Which analogy is most accurate?

a revolt of Protestant nobility against an unpopular king

The Thirty YEArs' War began as:

revoke the religious freedoms of the Bohemia Protestants

One of the first actions Ferdinand took as a king of Bohemia was to:

was about equally divided between Catholics and Protestants

By 1600, the population of the Holy Roman Empire:

Peace of Prague

This treaty brought the Swedish period of the war to an endL


The seven provinces that became the United Provinces of the Netherlands emerged as a nation in 1572 after revoltijng against this nation:

Tolerations marked the Dutch religious life where peoples of differeing religious faiths lived together peacefully

Which is true of the Netherlands

economic prosperity

What aspect of the Dutch society most impressed 17th century contemporaries?

parliamentary monarchy and political absolutism

What were the 2 most important models of European political development in the early modern period?

increased the costs of war, and governments across Europe found different ways to adapt

changes in military structure and technologies:

he was openly Catholic

what is not true of James I

his declaration of war against Spain shortly before his death

what did not rouse suspicion of James' foreign policy?

Parliament would meet and confer at least every six months, regardless of whether it was summoned by the monarch

The Petition of Rights required all except:


Charles I might have ruled indefinetly without Parliament had his religion policies not provoked war with:

a Puritan republic

Under Oliver Cromwell, England was officially:

the Anglican Church and the monarchy

After Cromwell died in 1658, the English were ready by 1660 to restore:

announce his conversion to Catholicism, and in exchange Louis XIV promised to pay Charles a substantial subsidy

In the Treaty of Dover, Charles II and Louis XIV's secret agreement called fore Charles II to:

Charles II

This king issued the Declaration of Indulgence which permitted free worship:

William and Mary were proclamed English monarchs

Which even occurred directly after the Glorius Revolution?


According to advocates of the "divine right of kings" kings only be judged by:

the execution of a majority of the Protestant nobility

The revocation of the Edict of Nantes resulted in all except

attempt of the nobility to use its authority to limit the power of the monarchy

The chied feature of 18th century French political life was the:

Hohenzollern dynasty in Prussia

what dynasty is correctly identified with the region it ruled?

All things considered, Poland's government was remarkably effective

What is not true of 17th and 18th century Poland?

Frederick William

He was known as the Great Elector:


What was not a part of the Austrian Habsburg Empire in the 18th cent?

time of troubles

The reign of Ivan was immediately followed by the:

lost much of their power

under the rule of Peter the Great, Russia's boyars:

the expansion of Russian territory in the Baltic

Russian victory in the Great Norhern War led to:

exemplified Russia's new orientation to the west

St. Petersburg:

Estonia, Livonia, and part of Finland

Under the Peace of Nystad in 1721, Russia gained control of :

they possessed the highest level of commercial skills in the empire

Over the years, Ghimmis in the Ottoman Empire obstained economic success because:


The ottoman sultans ruled their empire through administration units called:

it was not rapid

What is true of the scientific revolution?


During the 16th cent., the discoveries that most captured the public imagaination were made in:

Nicolaus Copernicus

He published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres and rejected the notion of an earth-centered universe:

Ptolemy and Aristotle

In the early 16th cent, the standard explanation of the place of the earth in the heavens combined the work of:

tested to see if it was what he actually observed

Newton was a mathematical genius, but before he upheld a theory he thought it should be:

the world can be explained in mechanical metaphors

Many proponents of mechanism believed:

Francis Bacon

he is known as the father of empiricism:


Descartes divided existing things into 2 categories, body and

self-centered, power-hungry creatures

Hobbes saw human beings as:


In Locke's view, the relationship between rulers and governed had as its foundation:


Maria Winkelmann made her contributions in the field of:


the catholic church admitted that errors had occured in the 1633 trial of Galileo in:

it is best to beleive God exists and stake everything to gain the lot; if God should prove not to exist, comparatively little will be lost.

According to Pascal's famous wager:

70,000 to 100,000

how many people were sentenced to death for witchcraft or harmful magic between 1400 and 1700?

religious split and warfare threatened the security of society and the witches were the scapegoats of a social panic

Based on ur knowledge of the text, which is the most plausible cause of the witch hunts?

they threatened the social order

the witch hunts ended because among other things:

elderly or widowed women

The 16th cent midwifery was a trade pursued by:

papal Rome

Baroque are first emerged in:

he had Roman Catholic sympathies

Charles I's employment of Rubens illustrated to the people of England that:

Louis XIV's palace at Versailles1

The most elaborate baroque monument to political absolutism was:

the social, political and economic relationships that had were prevalent in Europe before the french revolution

the term old regime has come to refer to:

a politically-active middle class

Which is not a basic characteristic of pre-revolutionary europe?

one to five percent of the population

in 18th cent europe, the nobility consisted of approxiamately:


the smallest, wealthiest and best defines aristocracy resided in:

income tax

french novles were responsible for payment of the vingtieme, which resembles what modern-day tax?


french nobles were divided b/w nobles of the sword and nobles of the:


the economic basis of 18th cent life was:

family economy

in pre-industrial europe, the economy of a household that developed on farms, in artisans' workshops, and in small merchants' shops and was known as the:


the process in which children in their young teens wud leave their nuclear family, learn a trade and eventually marry their own indeoendent household known as:

the family economy didnt dominate the life of skilled urban artisans

what is not true of the family economy?

the number of illigitimate births seems to have decreased during the 18th century

what is not true of children in the 18th century?

slowly but steadily rose

during the 18th century bread prices


introduced to the new world, this new product allowed more certin food supply in europe and enabled more children to survive to adulthood and rear children of their own:

appeal to contemporary christians to sell products to cleanse their outward appearance during their servies

during the industrial revolution, consumption wasnt automatic so manufacturers did all to seel their product except:

great britain

the single largest free-trade are in europe during the 18th cent was:


what industry pioneered the industrial revolution?


the industrial revolution came first to:

capitals and ports

in the years b/w 1600 and 1750, the cities grew more vigorously were:

wash only the parts of their bodies that cud be seen in ublic

from the middle ages thru the end of the 18th cent medical manuals advised people to

Poland, Lithuania, and Ukraine

in the 18th cent. and thereafter the jewish population of europe was concentrated in:

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