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Chapter 12 Psychological disorders

psychological disorder
deviant (atypical), distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
medical model
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
being different from most other people who share your culture.
What is considered deviant varies with time and culture
In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association listed ______ as a disorder and in 1973 dropped it.
For deviant behavior to be considered disordered, it must cause ______ to the person or others.
______ behaviors interfere with day to day life.
Reformers such as _____ in France opposed brutal treatments for deviant behaviors. He stated that they were caused by severe stress and inhumane conditions. Curing the sickness required "moral treatment" including boosting morale and talking with them.
In the 1800s, a medical breakthrough, the discovery that syphilis invades the brain and distorts the mind, triggered more research into triggers of disorders and the medical solutions.
Cultures differ in the sources of stress they produce and in the ways of coping they provide
In Latin American cultures, people may suffer from _____, a condition marked by severe anxiety, restlessness, and a fear of black magic
In Japanese culture, people may experience taijin-kyfusho, a social anxiety about their ______
depression, schizophrenia
_____ and ____ are disorders that occur worldwide
Classification, in psychology, gives us a thumbnail sketch of a person's disordered behavior along with a ______ of the disorder's future course and suggested treatment.
The American Psychiatric ASsociation's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is the best bet or describing disorders and estimating how often they occur.
intellectual disability
Some diagnostic labels in the DSM-IV-TR are changing: mental retardation is now becoming _______. Some new categories are being added such as hypersexual disorder, hoarding disorder, and binge-eating disorder.
In a study where 16 psychologists used DSM guidelines in interviews with 75 patients with disorders. Once the interview was complete, a second psychologist viewed the interview and offered a sec on, independent opinion. For ___% of the patients, the two opinions agreed.
60, 400
The critics of the DSM worry that it casts too wide a net and it brings almost any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.

The number of disorder categories has grown from ___ in the 1950's to over ___ today.
26, 46
According to the US National Institute of mental health, ___% of all adults meed the criteria for a mental illness in any year, and ____ have met the criteria at some point in their life.
value judgements
Other critics of the DSM say that the labels are just society's _______
_____ and seven others went to a hospital admissions office, complaining of hearing voices saying," empty, hollow, and thud." Apart from the complaint, they answered the questions truthfully. As a result, they were all diagnosed with disorders.
In another study, people watched videotaped interviews. If told the people being interviewed were job applicants, the viewers perceived them as normal. Others were told they were watching psychiatric or cancer patients. These viewers viewed the same people as different from most people. _____ matter.
anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, fearful, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
an anxiety disorder marked by persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
obsessive-compulsive disorders
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
One of the worst features of generalized anxiety disorder is that the _______ cannot be identified
____ of those with generalized anxiety disorder are women
generalized anxiety disorder
Many people with ________ were treated badly and inhibited as children. As time passes, however, emotions tend to mellow. By age 50, this disorder becomes rare.
social phobia
_______ is shyness taken to the extreme
post-traumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia lingering for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
In one study of 100,000 veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, ___% were diagnosed with a psychological disorder
post-traumatic stress disorder
Survivors of accidents, disasters, and violent and seal assaults can show symptoms of _______
The greater ones ______ distress during the trauma, the higher the risk for post-traumatic stress disorder
One in 3 Vietnam veterans that experienced heavy combat were diagnosed with ______. One in 10 who had never seen combat received this diagnosis
limbic system
Some people develop PTSD after a traumatic event and some don't because some may have a more sensitive emotion-processing _________ that flood their bodies with stress hormones
greater, survivor resiliency
The odds of getting PTSD are ________for women than men, but most people display an impressive _____
Some psychologists believe that PTSD has been over diagnosed, partly due to a broader definition of ______. In cases where PTSD is over diagnosed, the normal treatment may make people feel worse.
feeling, thought
Anxiety is both a _____ and a ______
psychoanalytic theory, learning, biological
Freud's _______ proposes that beginning in childhood, people repress certain impulses, ideas, and feelings. He thought this submerged mental energy sometimes leaks out, appearing as odd symptoms such as anxious hand washing. Few of today's psychologists interpret anxiety disorders this way. Most believe that two modern perspectives ____ and _____ are more helpful
classical conditioning
In experiments, researchers have shown that _______ can produce fear and anxiety
By giving rats unpredictable electric shocks, researchers have created _____ animals
Panic-prone people come to associate anxiety with certain ______. Certain people are so attentive to such threats.
stimulus generalization, reinforcement
Conditioning can magnify a single painful event into a phobia through two specific learning processes: _____ and _______
stimulus generalization
____ happens when a person experiences a fearful event and develops a fear of similar events
_______ occurs because once phobias and compulsions arise, it helps maintain them. Anything that helps us avoid or escape a situation reduces our anxiety.
We may also learn fear by ______ other's fears
Among monkeys, ______ runs in families
If one identical twin has an anxiety disorder, the other is likely to have one
generalized anxiety, panic attacks, ptsd, and obsessions and compulsions are ______ measurable
Specific brain areas become very active during behaviors such as compulsive hand washing, checking, ordering, or hoarding.
When the disordered brain detects that something is amiss, it seems to generate a mental _____ of repeating thoughts or actions
No matter how fearful or fearless we are, we humans seem biologically prepared to fear the threats our ______ faced- spiders and snakes, closed spaces and heights, storms and darkness.
In Britain, which has only one poisonous snake species, people often fear snakes.
World War II air raids produce remarkably few lasting ______
dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.
personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack on conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
dissociative disorders
In _______, a person's conscious awareness is said to become separated from painful memories, thoughts, and feelings.
short, 2, 20,000, 12
Skeptics find dissociative identity disorder suspicious because it has such a _____ history. Between 1930 and 1960, the number of DID diagnoses in N America was ___ per decade. By the 1980s, when the DSM contained the first formal code for the disorder the number of reported cases had exploded to more than _______. The average number of displayed personalities also mushroomed - from 3 to ____ per patient
North america
Dissociative identity disorder is also much less common outside of ______
Instead of being a real disorder, some ask if DID could be an extension of the way we vary our "selves" we present in different situations. Personalities could be triggered by _______ by fantasy-prone people
Proponents of DID find support in the distinct brain and body states associated with differing personalities
anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorders
Both the psychoanalytic and learning perspectives interpret DID symptoms as a way of dealing with ______. Psychoanalysts see them as defenses against anxiety caused by unacceptable impulses. Other psychologists include dissociative disorders under the umbrella of _______
In one study of 12 murderers diagnosed with DID, 11 had suffered severe abuse, even torture, during childhood
The lack of conscience of an antisocial personality disorder usually becomes apparent before age ____
low arousal
The genetic vulnerability of those with antisocial personality disorder appears as _______
conditioned fears
Even at age 3, children who were slow to develop ______ were more likely to commit a crime
frontal lobe
in a comparison of PET scans of 41 murderers' brains with those from people of similar age and sex, it was found that there was reduced activity in the ______ of the murderers, an area of the brain that helps control impulses
In another study, researchers found that violent repeat offenders had ___% less frontal lobe tissue than normal
substance-related disorders
a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress
psychoactive drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger dosages before experiencing the drug's effects
compulsive drug craving and use
the discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
psychological dependence
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative drug effects
A drug's overall effect depends not only on its biological effects, but also on the ______ of the user's expectations, which vary with cultures
depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, synapses
The three major categories of psychoactive drugs are:_____, ____, and ______. These all do their work at the brain's ______
Psychoactive drugs stimulate, inhibit, or mimic the activity of the brain's own chemical messengers and neurotransmitters
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduct neural activity and slow body functions
alcohol dependence
popularly known as alcoholism. Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal if suspended, and drive to continue use
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety, but impairing memory and judgement
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
80, 70
A survey showed that before sexual assaults, ___% of the male attackers and ___ % of the female victims had been drinking
Low doses of alcohol relax the drinker by slowing _____ nervous system activity
Alcohol disrupts the processing of recent experiences into ______ memories
REM sleep
Alcohol suppresses _____, the part of the sleep cycle that helps fix the days experiences into permanent memories
nerve cells, nerve cells
In rats, at a development stage similar to human adolescence, binge drinking contributes to the death of _____ and reduces the birth rate of new ______
alcohol dependence
In those with ______________, those with prolonged and excessive drinking can shrink the brain. Women are especially vulnerable because they have less of a stomach enzyme that digests alcohol
Girls and young women become addicted to alcohol more quickly than boys and young men. They also suffer lung, brain, and liver damage at lower consumption levels.
Of those who started drinking alcohol before age 14, ___% became alcohol dependent
nembutal, seconal, amytal
Examples of barbiturates are ___, ____, and _____
If combined with alcohol, barbiturates can have a total depressive effect on body functions and lead to death
WHen repeatedly flooded with artificial opiate, the brain eventually stops producing ______- the brain's own feel good opiates
_____ is a synthetic opiate drug often prescribed as a substitute for heroin and for relief of chronic pain
drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines cocaine and ecstasy, that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the CNS with speeded up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
(MDMA) a sympathetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin producing neurons and to mood and cognition
norepinephrine, epinephrine
A rush of nicotine signals the nervous system to release a flood of neurotransmitters _____ and ____ which diminish appetite, boost alertness and mental efficiency
______ triggers the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which stimulates the brain cells that enhance energy and mood. After effects include irritability, insomnia, high blood pressure, seizures, and periods of disorientation
hallucinogen, dopamine, serotonin
MDMA is both a stimulant and a ______. it is a amphetamine derivative that triggers the brain's release of _______. It's major effect is releasing stored _____ and blocking its reuptake, thus prolonging its feel good flood
Ecstasy's use can lead to severe ______, severe overheating, increased blood pressure, and death
Long-term repeated use of MDMA can damage serotonin-producing neurons. Serotonin regulates our body rhythms, immune system, and memory
psychedelic mind manifesting drugs, such as LSD, that distorts perceptions and evokes sensory images in the absence of sensory input
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid
near-death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death, often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
the major active ingredients in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
Hofmann, LSD
In 1943, _____ reported perceiving an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with an intense kaleidoscopic play of colors. He was a chemist that created and accidentally ingested ______
LSD and other hallucinogens are chemically similar to one type of _____ and can therefor block its action
Whether provoked to hallucinate by drugs, loss of oxygen or extreme sensory deprivation, the brain hallucinates in basically the same way
THC and its byproducts linger in the body for a month or more, which means that regular users may achieve a high with _____ amounts of the drug. This is contrary to the normal path of tolerance,
Dense groups of THC sensitive receptors exist in our brain's frontal lobes, limbic system, and motor cortex.
All psychoactive drugs trigger negative aftereffects that counter the drug's immediate positive effects
______ individuals are more likely to develop alcohol dependence if one or both biological parents have a history of it
identical twin, fraternal twins
Having an ______ with alcohol dependence puts one at increased risk for alcohol problems. The increased risk is not apparent in ________
Boys who are at age 6 are excitable, impulsive, and fearless are more likely as teens to smoke, drink, and abuse drugs
There are genes more common among people predisposed to alcohol dependence. These genes produce deficiencies in the brain's natural ______ reward system
Researchers have bred rats and mice that prefer alcoholic drinks to water. One such strain has low levels of a brain chemical called _____.
The ups and downs of marijuana usage among young people seems predicted by their perception of the _____ involved in using marijuana.
Among African American teens, rates of drinking, smoking, and cocaine use are sharply _______ than among other US teens
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
anxiety, depression
______ is a response to the threat of future loss. _____ is a response to past and current loss.
______ is a compass that tells us what to do
______ is the number one reason people seek mental health services
Worldwide, _____ is the leading cause of disability
From 1994 to 2003, bipolar disorder showed a ____ fold increase
The risk of suicide is at least ____ times greater for those who have been depressed than for the general population
belong, influence
People turn to suicide when two fundamental needs are practically gone: the need to _______ and the need to _____ others
Women's risk of major depression is nearly ___ times that of men's
later, few, stress, social support
Recovery from depression is more likely to endure when the first episode happens _____ in life, there were ____ previous episodes, the person experiences minimal ____, there is ample ______
With each new generation, depression is striking _____ and affecting more people
norepinephrine, serotonin
_____ and ________activity is scarce during depression
______ is a neurotransmitter that increases arousal and boosts mood
stable, global, internal
Depressed people tend to explain events in terms that are ___, _____, and _____
Psychologists who emphasize the importance of negative perceptions, beliefs, and thoughts in depression are working within the ______ perspective
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions,and inappropriate emotions and actions
false beliefs, often of persecution of grandeur, that may accompany schizophrenia and other disorders
delusions, hallucinations
_____are false beliefs. _____ are false perceptions
_______ typically strikes as young people are maturing into adulthood
In a study of Danish and Swedish men, the risk of _________ was highest for those who were thing and young, and who had not been breast-fed
When examining a schizophrenic's brain after death, they found an excess number of _____ receptors
amphetamines, cocaine
Drugs that block dopamine receptors often lessen the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. drugs that increase dopamine levels, such as ______ and _____ sometimes intensify them
frontal lobe, thalamus, amygdala
Schizophrenic patients have abnormally low activity in the _______. One study of PET scans of brain activity when people were hallucinating. When patients heard a voice or saw something, their brain became vigorously active in the ______-which filters incoming sensory signals and transmutes them to the brain's cortex. Another found increased activity in the _____- the fear processing center
In _____, areas of the brain become enlarged and fill with fluids; cerebral tissue also shrinks. The greater the shrinkage, the worse the thought disorder
Some researchers blame low birth rate or lack of oxygen for the brain abnormalities that occur with ______
People conceived during the peak of WWII's Dutch famine developed schizophrenia at ______ the normal rate
People are at increased risk of schizophrenia if, during the middle of their fetal development, their country experienced a _____ epidemic
Prenatal viral infections can contribute to the development of _____