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31 terms

Diffusion and Osmosis

Vocab
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Diffusion
process by which molecules spread from an area of greater concentration to less concentration
Concentration Gradient
differences in concentration of a substance across space
Equilibrium
state that exists when concentration of a substance is the same throughout space
when is an object permeable to a membrane?
if the substance can move across it
can all molecules diffuse across a membrane?
no depends on size and shape
Osmosis
process by which molecules spread from an area of greater concentration to less concentration in water
Solute
substance that dissolves in solution
Hypotonic
concentration of solute molecules outside cell is lower than concentration inside
Hypertonic
concentration of solute molecules outside cell is higher than concentration inside
Isotonic
molecules diffuse in and out at equal rates
Turgor Pressure
pressure that h2o molecules exert against cell wall
Plasmolysis
when cells shrink away from cell walls-turgor pressure is lost
Cytolysis
bursting of cells
Endocytosis
process by which cells ingest cyternal fluid and large particles
Pinocytosis
transport of fluids
Phagocytosis
movement of large particles
Active Transport
Cells must move materials up their concentration gradient
Sodium-Potassium Pump
Carrier proteins transport Na+ ions and Kt ions up their concentration gradient
Carrier Proteins
binds to the molecules it transports.
Facilitated Diffusion
molecules that cannot diffuse rapidly through cell membranes even when there is a concentration gradient-molecules are assisted by carrier proteins
Metabolic Rate
amount of energy used in certain period
Solvent
substance that dissolves another to make a solution
Does temperature effect diffusion?
Yes, warmer it is the faster diffusion takes place
Semipermeable Membrane
a pliable tissue which allows some materials to pass but stops others
Turgor
describes how rigid plant cells are due to pressure of water they contain
Thermal Equilibrium
two substances in physical contact with each other exchange no heat
Dynamic Equilibrium
constant action but the result in the action has no change
Basil Metabolic Rate
resting rate
Exocytosis
process by which material is exported from a cell
Phospholipids
various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base
ion channel
passageways through cell membrane