22 terms

Group Dynamics: Chapter 9

babble effect
The tendency for group members who talk at a high rate in the group to emerge as leaders, even if the information they share with the group is of low quality.
contingency theory
Any theory that suggests a leader's effectiveness is contingent on situational factors; usually used in reference to Fred Fiedler's conceptual analysis of leadership, which posits that a leader's success is determined by his or her leadership style and the favorability of the group situation; more generally, any analysis of leadership that suggests that the effectiveness of leaders depends on the interaction of their personal characteristics and the group situation.
Leading individuals in multiple locations through the use of such telecommunication technologies as teleconferencing, Internet communication, and file-sharing systems.
emotional intelligence
The component of social intelligence that relates to one's capacity to accurately perceive emotions, to use information about emotions when making decisions, and to monitor and control one's own and others' emotional reactions.
Working effectively with a leader and other group members.
great leader theory
A view of leadership, attributed to historian Thomas Carlyle, which states that successful leaders possess certain characteristics that mark them for greatness and that such great leaders shape the course of history.
implicit leadership theories
Group members' taken-for-granted assumptions about the traits, characteristics, and qualities that distinguish leaders from the people they lead; also known as leader prototypes.
implicit leadership theory
A cognitive explanation for leadership emergence that assumes members' implicit expectations and assumptions about leaders influence their appraisals of the leadership potential of other group members (developed by Robert Lord and his colleagues).
leader-member exchange theory
A dyadic, relational approach to leadership assuming that leaders develop exchange relationships with each of their subordinates and that the quality of these leader-member exchange (LMX) relationships influences subordinates' responsibility, decision influence, access to resources, and performance.
Guidance of others in their pursuits, often by unifying, directing, coordinating, supporting, and motivating their efforts; also, the ability to lead others.
leadership emergence
The process by which an individual becomes formally or informally, perceptually or behaviorally, and implicitly or explicitly recognized as the leader of a leaderless group.
Leadership Grid
A theory of management and leadership assuming that people vary in their concern for results and their concern for people and that individuals who are high on both dimensions (9,9) are the best leaders (developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton).
leadership substitutes theory
A conceptual analysis of the factors that reduce or eliminate the need for a leader (substitutes) or prevent the leader from dispatching his or her responsibilities (neutralizers).
Least Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC)
An indirect measure of the tendency to lead by stressing the task (low LPC) or relationships (high LPC) (developed by Fred Fiedler).
romance of leadership
The tendency to overestimate the amount of influence and control leaders exert on their groups and their groups' outcomes.
situational leadership theory
A theory of leadership suggesting that groups benefit from leadership that meshes with a group's stage of development (developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard).
social role theory
A conceptual analysis of sex differences that recognizes men and women take on different types of roles in many societies and that these role expectations generate gender stereotypes and differences in the behavior of women and men (proposed by Alice Eagly).
task-relationship model
A descriptive model of leadership, which maintains that most leadership behaviors can be classified as either performance maintenance or relationship maintenance.
terror management theory (TMT)
A conceptual analysis of the implicit psychological processes thought to defend individuals from the emotionally terrifying knowledge that they are mortal and will someday die.
transactional leadership
A traditional form of leadership that involves contributing time, effort, and other resources in the pursuit of collaborative goals in exchange for desired outcomes.
transformational leadership
An inspirational method of leading others that involves elevating one's followers' motivation, confidence, and satisfaction, by uniting them in the pursuit of shared, challenging goals, and changing their beliefs, values, and needs.
Zeitgeist theory
A view of leadership, attributed to Leo Tolstoy, which states that history is determined primarily by the "spirit of the times" rather than by the actions and choices of great leaders.