Group Dynamics: Chapter 10
Terms in this set (40)
A task or project that a group can complete by cumulatively combining individual members' inputs.
A method for enhancing creativity in groups that calls for heightened expressiveness, postponed evaluation, quantity rather than quality, and deliberate attempts to build on earlier ideas.
Brainstorming sessions that involve generating new ideas in writing rather than orally, usually by asking members to add their own ideas to a circulating list.
Performing a task or another type of goal-oriented activity in the presence of one or more other individuals who are performing a similar type of activity.
collective effort model (CEM)
A theoretical explanation of group productivity that traces losses of productivity in groups to diminished expectations about successful goal attainment and the diminished value of group goals (developed by Steven Karau and Kipling Williams).
A task or project that a group can complete by literally averaging together (mathematically combining) individual members' solutions or recommendations.
A task that can be completed successfully only if all group members contribute.
crew resource management (CRM)
A human factors training program, originally developed in the aviation industry, designed to improve crew coordination and efficiency through structured training in teamwork and communication skills and resource, time, and workload management.
A group performance method that involves repeated assessment of members' opinions via surveys and questionnaires as opposed to face-to-face meetings.
A relatively unstructured task that can be completed by using a variety of social combination procedures, thus leaving the methods used in its completion to the discretion of the group or group leader.
A task or project that is completed when a single solution, decision, or recommendation is adopted by the group.
An analysis of performance gains in groups assuming that when others are present, attention is divided between the other people and the task; this attentional conflict increases motivation, and it facilitates performance on simple, well-learned tasks.
A task that can be broken down into subcomponents that can then be assigned to individuals or to subgroups within the group.
In general, an analysis of human motivation that stresses the impact of psychological or physiological needs or desires on individuals' thoughts, feelings, and actions; also an explanation of social facilitation that maintains that the presence of others evokes a generalized drive state characterized by increased readiness and arousal (proposed by Robert Zajonc).
electronic brainstorming (EBS)
Generating ideas and solving problems using computer-based communication methods such as online discussions and synchronous email rather than face-to-face sessions.
electronic performance monitoring (EPM)
The use of information technologies, such as computer networks, to track, analyze, and report information about workers' performance.
evaluation apprehension theory
An analysis of performance gains in groups arguing that individuals working in the presence of others experience a general concern for how these others are evaluating them and that this apprehension facilitates their performance on simple, well-learned tasks.
Contributing less to a collective task when one believes that other group members will compensate for this lack of effort.
illusion of group productivity
The tendency for members to believe that their group is performing effectively.
A project, problem, or other type of task with results that can be evaluated objectively using some normative criterion, such as a mathematics problem with a known solution or the spelling of a word.
A project, problem, or other type of task with results that cannot be evaluated objectively because there are no clear criteria to judge them against.
An increase in performance by groups working on conjunctive tasks that require persistence but little coordination of effort and is likely due to the increased effort expended by the less capable members.
A task or project that calls for a high rate of production.
A collection of individuals that meets only the most minimal of requirements to be considered a group and so is a group in name only; in studies of performance, a control or baseline group created by having individuals work alone and then pooling their products.
nominal group technique (NGT)
A group performance method wherein a face-to-face group session is prefaced by a nominal-group phase during which individuals work alone to generate ideas.
A task or project that has a best solution and outcome, thus the quality of the group's performance can be judged by comparing the product to a quality-defining standard.
A reduction in performance effectiveness or efficiency caused by actions, operations, or dynamics that prevent the group from reaching its full potential, including reduced effort, faulty group processes, coordination problems, and ineffective leadership.
A loss of productivity that occurs when group and procedural factors obstruct the group's progress toward its goals, particularly when individuals in a brainstorming session are delayed in stating their ideas until they can gain the floor and when group members are distracted by others' ideas and so generate fewer of their own.
The tendency, first documented by Max Ringelmann, for people to become less productive when they work with others; this loss of efficiency increases as group size increases, but at a gradually decreasing rate.
An analysis of performance gains in groups assuming that social facilitation is caused by individuals striving to make a good impression when they work in the presence of others.
The tendency for group members to expend greater effort on important collective tasks to offset the anticipated insufficiencies in the efforts and abilities of their co-members.
An improvement in task performance that occurs when people work in the presence of other people.
The reduction of individual effort exerted when people work in groups compared to when they work alone.
social matching effect
The tendency for individuals in brainstorming groups to match the level of productivity displayed by others in the group.
social orientation theory
An analysis of performance gains in groups suggesting individual differences in social orientation (the tendency to approach social situations apprehensively or with enthusiasm) predict when social facilitation will occur.
A self-organized, self-directed group formed by students for the purpose of studying course material.
The tendency for members to contribute less to a group endeavor when they expect that others will think negatively of those who work too hard or contribute too much (considering them to be a "sucker").
Producing an outcome as a group that is superior to the results that could have been achieved by a simple aggregation or accumulation of group members' individual efforts; a gain in performance caused by performance-enhancing group processes.
The effect that a problem or task's features, including its divisibility and difficulty, have on the procedures the group can use to complete the task.
A task that cannot be performed piecemeal because it does not break down into any subcomponents.