The counterintuitive tendency for a group to decide on a course of action that none of the members of the group individually endorses, resulting from the group's failure to recognize and manage its agreement on key issues (identified by Jerry Harvey).
A self-report measure of willingness to make risky decisions; respondents indicate what the odds of success would have to be before they would recommend the course of action.
The psychological desire to reach a final decision swiftly and completely; also, the relative strength of this tendency, as indicated by a preference for order, predictability, decisiveness, and closed-mindedness.
collective information processing model
A general theoretical explanation of group decision making assuming that groups use communication and discussion among the members to gather and process the information needed to formulate decisions, choices, and judgments.
A group's combined memories, including each member's memories, the group's shared mental models, and transactive memory systems.
The tendency to seek out information that confirms one's inferences rather than disconfirms them.
The enhancement of recall that occurs during group discussion when the statements made by group members serve as cues for the retrieval of information from the memories of other group members.
Obtaining information, estimates, ideas, and services from a large number of individuals, often using Internet-based technologies.
The communication of information between two or more people undertaken for some shared purpose, such as solving a problem, making a decision, or increasing participants mutual understanding of the situation.
Perceived fairness of the distribution of rights, resources, and costs.
A form of escalating investment in which individuals expend more of their resources in pursuing a chosen course of action than seems appropriate or justifiable by external standards.
functional theory of group decision making
A conceptual analysis of the steps or processes that groups generally follow when making a decision, with a focus on the intended purpose of each step or process in the overall decision-making sequence.
group decision support systems
A set of integrated tools groups use to structure and facilitate their decision making, including computer programs that expedite data acquisition, communication among group members, document sharing, and the systematic review of alternative actions and outcomes.
The tendency for members of a deliberating group to move to a more extreme position with the direction of the shift determined by the majority or average of the members' predeliberation preferences.
A group-level syndrome caused by members' excessive strivings to maintain and support their group's unity that results in perturbations in a group's decision-making capability and intergroup relations.
law of triviality
The amount of time a group spends on discussing any issue will be in inverse proportion to the consequentiality of the issue.
A group member who shields the group from negative or controversial information by gatekeeping and suppressing dissent.
normative model of decision making
A theory of decision making and leadership that predicts the effectiveness of group-centered, consultative, and autocratic decisional procedures across a number of group settings (developed by Victor Vroom and his associates).
A task will expand to fill the time available for its completion.
An explanation of polarization in groups assuming that group members change their opinions during group discussion, generally adopting the position favored by the majority of the members, because the group can generate more arguments favoring that position.
The tendency for individuals and groups to underestimate the time, energy, and means needed to complete a planned project successfully.
Perceived fairness and legitimacy of the methods used to make decisions, resolve disputes, and allocate resources; also, in judicial contexts, the use of fair and impartial procedures.
The tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than individuals.
shared information bias (or common knowledge effect)
The tendency for groups to spend more time discussing information that all members know (shared information) and less time examining information that only a few members know (unshared).
shared mental model
Knowledge, expectations, conceptualizations, and other cognitive representations that members of a group have in common pertaining to the group and its members, tasks, procedures, and resources.
social decision scheme
A strategy or rule used in a group to select a single alternative from among various alternatives proposed and discussed during the group's deliberations, including explicitly acknowledged decision rules (e.g., the group accepts the alternative favored by the majority) and implicit decisional procedures (e.g., the group accepts the alternative favored by the most powerful members).
An investment or loss of resources that cannot be recouped by current or future actions.
transactive memory processes
Information to be remembered is distributed to various members of the group who can then be relied upon to provide that information when it is needed.