27 terms

Group Dynamics: Chapter 14

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common ingroup identity model
An analysis of recategorization processes and conflict, predicting that intergroup conflict can be reduced by emphasizing membership in inclusive social categories and the interdependence of the individuals in the groups (developed by Samuel Gaertner, John Dovidio, and their colleagues).
contact hypothesis
The prediction that contact between the members of different groups will reduce intergroup conflict.
cross-categorization
A reduction of the impact of social categorization on individuals' perceptions by making salient their memberships in two or more social groups or categories that are not related to the categories that are generating ingroup-outgroup tensions.
decategorization
Reducing social categorization tendencies by minimizing the salience of group memberships and stressing the individuality of each person in the group.
dehumanization
Believing that other individuals or entire groups of individuals lack the qualities thought to distinguish human beings from other animals; such dehumanization serves to rationalize the extremely negative treatment often afforded to members of other groups.
discontinuity effect
The markedly greater competitiveness of groups when interacting with other groups, relative to the competitiveness of individuals interacting with other individuals.
double-standard thinking
Judging the actions and attributes of one's own group positively, but viewing these very same behaviors or displays negatively when the outgroup performs them.
ethnocentrism
The belief that one's own tribe, region, or country is superior to other tribes, regions, or countries.
extended contact hypothesis
The prediction that cross-group friendships not only increase the two friends' acceptance of the respective outgroups, but also cause other members of their groups to become more positive toward the outgroups as well.
frustration-aggression hypothesis
An early motivational model that argued that individuals become more aggressive whenever external conditions prevent them from reaching their goals.
general aggression model
A framework for organizing biological, environmental, social, and psychological factors that influence the expression of hostile, negative behavior, including (a) person and situational inputs; (b) cognitive, affective, and arousal states, and (c) cognitive appraisals.
group attribution error
Mistakenly assuming that specific group members' personal characteristics and preferences, including their beliefs, attitudes, and decisions, are similar to the preferences of the group to which they belong.
jigsaw method
A team-learning technique that involves assigning topics to each student, allowing students with the same topics to study together, and then requiring these students to teach their topics to the other members of their groups (developed by Elliot Aronson and his colleagues).
law of small numbers
Basing generalizations about the outgroup on observations of a small number of individuals from that group.
linguistic intergroup bias
The tendency to describe positive ingroup and negative outgroup behaviors more abstractly, and negative ingroup and positive outgroup behaviors more concretely.
moral exclusion
A psychological process whereby opponents in a conflict come to view each other as undeserving of morally mandated rights and protections.
outgroup homogeneity bias
The perceptual tendency to assume that the members of other groups are very similar to each other, whereas the membership of one's own group is more heterogeneous.
realistic group conflict theory
A conceptual framework arguing that conflict between groups stems from competition for scarce resources, including food, territory, wealth, power, natural resources, and energy.
recategorization
A reduction of social categorization tendencies by collapsing groups in conflict into a single group or category.
Robbers Cave experiment
A field study that examined the causes and consequences of conflict between two groups of boys at Robbers Cave State Park in Oklahoma (designed and conducted by Muzafer and Carolyn Sherif and their colleagues).
scapegoat theory
An explanation of intergroup conflict arguing that hostility caused by frustrating environmental circumstances (such as abuse by others or failure) is released by taking hostile actions against members of other social groups.
social dominance theory
An approach to oppression and domination assuming that conflict between groups results from dynamic tensions between hierarchically ranked groups within society (developed by Sidanius, Pratto, and their colleagues).
stereotype
A socially shared set of cognitive generalizations (e.g., beliefs, expectations) about the qualities and characteristics of the members of a particular group or social category.
stereotype content model
A theory of group perception positing that people's stereotyped views about social groups reflect their beliefs about the warmth and competence of the stereotyped group.
superordinate goal
A goal that can only be attained if the members of two or more groups work together by pooling their efforts and resources.
ultimate attribution error
Attributing negative actions performed by members of the outgroup to dispositional qualities and positive actions to situational, fluctuating circumstances.
virtual contact hypothesis
The prediction that online contact between the members of different groups will improve relations between these groups.
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