71 terms

TExES ELAR 7-12 (Structure & Development of English Lang. /Grammar) Comp 03

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Main Clause
has a subject and a predicate and can stand alone as a sentence
Verb
An action word
Noun
A person, place, thing, or idea
Conjunction
A word used to join words or groups of words
Ex: as, but, or
Adverb
A word that describes a verb
Adjective
A word that describes a noun
Pronoun
A word that takes the place of a noun
Interjection
exclamation; Ex. "Ouch''
Participal
Is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. They can be presentense (BAKING bread) or past tense (COVERED wagons)

They combine ideas to create smoother-sounding sentences.
Subject Verb Agreement
agreement in number between a subject and a verb. If the subject is singular, the verb is singular. If the subject is plural, the verb is plural.
Syntax
The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.
Word Structure
The way in which the parts of a word are arranged together-used to determine a word's meaning
Affixes
Word parts that are fixed to either the beginning of words (prefixes) or end of words (suffixes)
root words
One type of morphemes (and the key to understanding a word because this is where the actual meaning is determined)
Morphemes
The smallest units of meaning in a language.
Graphophonics
The linguistic term referring to the system of sound-letter relationships in a language.
Active Voice
> sentence in which the SUBJECT performs the action
EX: The lightening, struck the tree. = ACTIVE
The tree was struck by lightning. = Passive
Dependent Clause
AKA - Subordinate Clause
> CANNOT stand alone as a sentence.
> must be combined w/ and independant clause.
Examples:
"The hobo passed through the town unnoticed." = Independant
"As the hobo passed through the town on the train.." = Dependant
Parallel Construction
> sentence construction using the same grammatical structure to achieve greater understanding.
EX: I began washing my hair, brushing my teeth, & shaving my beard for the first day of work.
Simple Sentence
A sentence consisting of one independent clause and no dependent clause
Independent Clause
expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. Has both a subject and a verb.
Coorinators
For, and, nor, but, yet, so
Compound Complex Sentence
> made from 2 Independent Clauses + 1 or more Dependent Clauses
EXP: Although I like to go camping I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.
Complex Sentence
A sentence with one independent clause and at least one or more dependent clauses.
Ex: The teacher returned the homework AFTER she noticed the error.
Compound Sentence
> contains 2 independent clauses (simple sentences) joined by a coordinator.
EX: I tried to speak Spanish AND my friend tried to speak English.
Singular Subject
Must have a singular verb (one person/thing)
Orthography
> Set of conventions for written language
> Includes rules for spelling, hyphenation & capitalization
"Rules for written language"
Compound Subject
two or more subjects joined together usually by "and" or "or" that share a common verb
Clause
(grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence
Subject
A person, place, thing or idea (noun) that is DOING something.
Predicate
the part of a sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something about the subject
Hyphenation: Between Words
> used on 2 or more words when they come BEFORE a noun; they modify & act as a single idea.
EX: An off-campus apartment

> Required when forming ORIGINAL compound verbs for vivid writing, humor, or special situation.
EX: The slacker video-gamed his way through life.

> When writing out new & unusual compound nouns to avoid confusion.
EX: I changed my diet & became a no-meater.

> Not to be used with adverbs ending in LY
> Often used to tell the ages of people and things.
> Use for spans or estimates of time, distance or quantities.
> No spaces are used in between
> Use for ALL compound number
> Use for ALL spelled-out fractions.
EX: one-third

> NOT to be used on proper nouns of more that one word when they are used as compound adjectives.
EX: She is an Academy-Award nominee = incorrect
Compound Adjective
a single adjective made up of more than one word. They are often linked together with a hyphen to show that they belong together.

EX: two-seater aircraft
Compound Nouns
A noun that is made up of two or more words.
EX: toothpaste
Prefix
> a letter or set of letters placed BEFORE a root word.
> they expand or change a word's meaning
> a, un, de, ab, sub, post, anti, ect.
EX: un in UNfriendly or dis in DIShonor
Suffix
> a letter or set of letters that FOLLOW a root word.
> they form new words or alter the origional word to
perform a different task.
> y, er, ism, able, etc.
EX: OUS in the word Scandalous or IZE in the word Scandaliz
Hyphenation Rules: Prefixes
> to be used when they come BEFORE proper nouns or proper adjectives.
EX: trans-American or mid-July

> In describing family relations - use after the word GREAT.
EX: great-great-grandfather

> use with prefixes ending in a vowel when the root word begins with the same letter.
EX: ultrA-Ambitious or semI-Invalid

> use on ALL words that begin with prefixes SELF, EX & ALL.
EX: self-assured, ex-mayor, all-knowing

> Use with the prefix "re" when omitting would cause confusion with another word.
EX: She will RECOVER from her illness. (as opposed to) I have RE-COVERED the sofa twice.

> Add or use if you feel the word would be distracting or confusing without it.
EX: de-ice instead of deice
co-worker instead of coworker
Hyphenation Rules: Suffixes
> normally not used except for the following exceptions: -style, -elect, -free, -based.
EX: Modernist-style, Mayor-elect, sugar-free, oil-based

> Use discretion when using beyond the above exceptions. Only use to avoid word confusion.
EX: eel-esque instead of eelesque (could be confusing to reader)
Types of Phrases
Appositive, Infinitive, Prepositional, Participial, Gerund
Infinitive Phrase
> Consists of an infinitive and any modifiers
EX: "To smash a spider"
"To kick the ball past the dazed goalie"
Appositive
A noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it.
EX: The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table.
Infinitve
"to" plus a verb used as a noun, adjective, or adverb
EX: to sneeze, to smash, to cry or to shriek
Preposition
> Words that indicate location
> at, by, in, to, from, with
EX: The puppy is ON the floor
Prepositional Phrase
> Will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund or clause.
EX: "at home" / "in time" / "Under the warm blanket"
Absolute Phrase
> Combines a noun and a participle with any accompanying modifiers or objects.
> Noun + Participle + Optional Modifiers/& or Objects
EX: Legs quivering (legs = noun)(quivering = participle) or
Her arms folded across her chest. (arms = noun)(folded = participle)(across her chest = modifiers)
Modifiers
> words, phrases or clauses that provide description in sentences
> usually an adjective or noun
Gerund
> ALWAYS ends in ing.
> function as nouns & hard to identify
EX: Since Shelby was 5 years old, swimming has been her passion.
- "swimming" is used as a noun (sport of swimming) instead of a verb.
Gerund Phrase
Begins with a Gerund (an ing word) and includes other modifiers (describing)
Participle
> A verb form that can be used as an adjective
> come in 2 varieties: Past or Present (giggled = past) (giggling = present)

EX: "working woman" or "burnt toast"
Participle Phrase
> Begins with a past or present participle
> Acts as an adjective
EX: The horse TROTTING UP TO THE FENCE hopes that you have an apple or carrot.
When to use a comma
> List
> adjectives
> conjunctions
> Interrupters
> Direct addresses
Comma Use: List
> used to separate words or group words in a series of 3 or more.
EX: My estate goes to my son, daughter, and nephew.
Comma Use: Adjectives
Used to separate two adjectives when their order is interchangeable.
EX: "He is a strong, healthy man." or "He is a healthy, strong man."
- the adjectives STRONG & HEALTHY are interchangeable
Comma Use: Conjunctions
> use before a coordinating conjunction - and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet
EX: I am going home, AND then I'm going to sleep.
Comma Splice
The use of a comma to join two independent clauses.
EX:
Wrong: He walked all the way home, he shut the door.
Correct: After he walked all the way home, he shut the door.
Correct: He walked all the way home, and he shut the door.
Comma Use: Interrupters
> A word phrase or clause that interrupts the sentence.
> You could pull the word or phrase out of the sentence by the commas on either side & the sentence would still make sense.
EX: What you ate, IF YOU MUST KNOW, was a squid.
Comma Use: Direct Address
> use when a sentence directly addresses the reader
> The name of the person you are addressing is NOT part of the main clause. Therefore a comma must be used to separate.
EX: SPIDERMAN, your webs weave a complicated path.
Grammatical Form
> What a word looks like
> Parts of speech - there are 8
*Noun, adjective, determiner, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection
Grammatical Function
> What a word does
> There are 32 grammatical functions
EX: Subject, predicate, indirect object, modifier, appositive, progressive, ect.
Direct Object
the object that receives the direct action of the verb
Indirect Object
tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done. EX: Jack showed the DOG kindness.
Subject Complement
> a adjective, noun, or pronoun that follows a linking verb.
Linking Verbs
> Connect the subject with the descriptive adjective
> am, is, are, was, were, has been, are being, become, & seem
Determinative
> Helps clarify the meaning and context of the writings.
> They clarify statements that could have multiple meanings.
Periodic Structure
A sentence in which the main clause or predicate is withheld until the end.
EX: For his return, brokenhearted, WAITED SHE TILL THE END OF HER DAYS
Misplaced Modifier
a modifier that is not placed near near the word it modifies.
EX: CHURNING in the Atlantic Ocean, we anxiously watched the weather report for information about the hurricane.
**hurricane & churning are too far apart creating confusion.
Morpheme
> The smallest unit of meaningful sound.
> a, but
> Prefixes pre- and an-
Comparative Adjective
Used to compare only 2 things
Superlative Adjective
Used to compare three or more items
EX: This is the HOTTEST day of the year.
Phonemes
smallest unit of sound
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