TExES ELAR 7-12 (Structure & Development of English Lang. /Grammar) Comp 03
Terms in this set (...)
has a subject and a predicate and can stand alone as a sentence
An action word
A person, place, thing, or idea
A word used to join words or groups of words Ex: as, but, or
A word that describes a verb
A word that describes a noun
A word that takes the place of a noun
exclamation; Ex. "Ouch''
Is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. They can be presentense (BAKING bread) or past tense (COVERED wagons)
They combine ideas to create smoother-sounding sentences.
Subject Verb Agreement
agreement in number between a subject and a verb. If the subject is singular, the verb is singular. If the subject is plural, the verb is plural.
The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.
The way in which the parts of a word are arranged together-used to determine a word's meaning
Word parts that are fixed to either the beginning of words (prefixes) or end of words (suffixes)
One type of morphemes (and the key to understanding a word because this is where the actual meaning is determined)
The smallest units of meaning in a language.
The linguistic term referring to the system of sound-letter relationships in a language.
> sentence in which the SUBJECT performs the action EX: The lightening, struck the tree. = ACTIVE The tree was struck by lightning. = Passive
AKA - Subordinate Clause > CANNOT stand alone as a sentence. > must be combined w/ and independant clause. Examples: "The hobo passed through the town unnoticed." = Independant "As the hobo passed through the town on the train.." = Dependant
> sentence construction using the same grammatical structure to achieve greater understanding. EX: I began washing my hair, brushing my teeth, & shaving my beard for the first day of work.
A sentence consisting of one independent clause and no dependent clause
expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. Has both a subject and a verb.
For, and, nor, but, yet, so
Compound Complex Sentence
> made from 2 Independent Clauses + 1 or more Dependent Clauses EXP: Although I like to go camping I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.
A sentence with one independent clause and at least one or more dependent clauses. Ex: The teacher returned the homework AFTER she noticed the error.
> contains 2 independent clauses (simple sentences) joined by a coordinator. EX: I tried to speak Spanish AND my friend tried to speak English.
Must have a singular verb (one person/thing)
> Set of conventions for written language > Includes rules for spelling, hyphenation & capitalization "Rules for written language"
two or more subjects joined together usually by "and" or "or" that share a common verb
(grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence
A person, place, thing or idea (noun) that is DOING something.
the part of a sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something about the subject
Hyphenation: Between Words
> used on 2 or more words when they come BEFORE a noun; they modify & act as a single idea. EX: An off-campus apartment
> Required when forming ORIGINAL compound verbs for vivid writing, humor, or special situation. EX: The slacker video-gamed his way through life.
> When writing out new & unusual compound nouns to avoid confusion. EX: I changed my diet & became a no-meater.
> Not to be used with adverbs ending in LY > Often used to tell the ages of people and things. > Use for spans or estimates of time, distance or quantities. > No spaces are used in between > Use for ALL compound number > Use for ALL spelled-out fractions. EX: one-third
> NOT to be used on proper nouns of more that one word when they are used as compound adjectives. EX: She is an Academy-Award nominee = incorrect
a single adjective made up of more than one word. They are often linked together with a hyphen to show that they belong together.
EX: two-seater aircraft
A noun that is made up of two or more words. EX: toothpaste
> a letter or set of letters placed BEFORE a root word. > they expand or change a word's meaning > a, un, de, ab, sub, post, anti, ect. EX: un in UNfriendly or dis in DIShonor
> a letter or set of letters that FOLLOW a root word. > they form new words or alter the origional word to perform a different task. > y, er, ism, able, etc. EX: OUS in the word Scandalous or IZE in the word Scandaliz
Hyphenation Rules: Prefixes
> to be used when they come BEFORE proper nouns or proper adjectives. EX: trans-American or mid-July
> In describing family relations - use after the word GREAT. EX: great-great-grandfather
> use with prefixes ending in a vowel when the root word begins with the same letter. EX: ultrA-Ambitious or semI-Invalid
> use on ALL words that begin with prefixes SELF, EX & ALL. EX: self-assured, ex-mayor, all-knowing
> Use with the prefix "re" when omitting would cause confusion with another word. EX: She will RECOVER from her illness. (as opposed to) I have RE-COVERED the sofa twice.
> Add or use if you feel the word would be distracting or confusing without it. EX: de-ice instead of deice co-worker instead of coworker
Hyphenation Rules: Suffixes
> normally not used except for the following exceptions: -style, -elect, -free, -based. EX: Modernist-style, Mayor-elect, sugar-free, oil-based
> Use discretion when using beyond the above exceptions. Only use to avoid word confusion. EX: eel-esque instead of eelesque (could be confusing to reader)
> Consists of an infinitive and any modifiers EX: "To smash a spider" "To kick the ball past the dazed goalie"
A noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. EX: The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table.
"to" plus a verb used as a noun, adjective, or adverb EX: to sneeze, to smash, to cry or to shriek
> Words that indicate location > at, by, in, to, from, with EX: The puppy is ON the floor
> Will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund or clause. EX: "at home" / "in time" / "Under the warm blanket"
> Combines a noun and a participle with any accompanying modifiers or objects. > Noun + Participle + Optional Modifiers/& or Objects EX: Legs quivering (legs = noun)(quivering = participle) or Her arms folded across her chest. (arms = noun)(folded = participle)(across her chest = modifiers)
> words, phrases or clauses that provide description in sentences > usually an adjective or noun
> ALWAYS ends in ing. > function as nouns & hard to identify EX: Since Shelby was 5 years old, swimming has been her passion. - "swimming" is used as a noun (sport of swimming) instead of a verb.
Begins with a Gerund (an ing word) and includes other modifiers (describing)
> A verb form that can be used as an adjective > come in 2 varieties: Past or Present (giggled = past) (giggling = present)
EX: "working woman" or "burnt toast"
> Begins with a past or present participle > Acts as an adjective EX: The horse TROTTING UP TO THE FENCE hopes that you have an apple or carrot.
When to use a comma
> List > adjectives > conjunctions > Interrupters > Direct addresses
Comma Use: List
> used to separate words or group words in a series of 3 or more. EX: My estate goes to my son, daughter, and nephew.
Comma Use: Adjectives
Used to separate two adjectives when their order is interchangeable. EX: "He is a strong, healthy man." or "He is a healthy, strong man." - the adjectives STRONG & HEALTHY are interchangeable
Comma Use: Conjunctions
> use before a coordinating conjunction - and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet EX: I am going home, AND then I'm going to sleep.
The use of a comma to join two independent clauses. EX: Wrong: He walked all the way home, he shut the door. Correct: After he walked all the way home, he shut the door. Correct: He walked all the way home, and he shut the door.
Comma Use: Interrupters
> A word phrase or clause that interrupts the sentence. > You could pull the word or phrase out of the sentence by the commas on either side & the sentence would still make sense. EX: What you ate, IF YOU MUST KNOW, was a squid.
Comma Use: Direct Address
> use when a sentence directly addresses the reader > The name of the person you are addressing is NOT part of the main clause. Therefore a comma must be used to separate. EX: SPIDERMAN, your webs weave a complicated path.
> What a word looks like > Parts of speech - there are 8 *Noun, adjective, determiner, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection
> What a word does > There are 32 grammatical functions EX: Subject, predicate, indirect object, modifier, appositive, progressive, ect.
the object that receives the direct action of the verb
tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done. EX: Jack showed the DOG kindness.
> a adjective, noun, or pronoun that follows a linking verb.
> Connect the subject with the descriptive adjective > am, is, are, was, were, has been, are being, become, & seem
> Helps clarify the meaning and context of the writings. > They clarify statements that could have multiple meanings.
A sentence in which the main clause or predicate is withheld until the end. EX: For his return, brokenhearted, WAITED SHE TILL THE END OF HER DAYS
a modifier that is not placed near near the word it modifies. EX: CHURNING in the Atlantic Ocean, we anxiously watched the weather report for information about the hurricane. **hurricane & churning are too far apart creating confusion.
> The smallest unit of meaningful sound. > a, but > Prefixes pre- and an-
Used to compare only 2 things
Used to compare three or more items EX: This is the HOTTEST day of the year.