57 terms

TExES ELAR 7-12 (Written Communication) - Comp 8

STUDY
PLAY
Scaffolding
a variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively toward stronger understanding and greater independence in the learning process.
Scaffolding Strategies
1. Show and Tell
2. Prior Knowledge
3. Give time to Talk
4. Pre-Teach Vocabulary
5. Visual Aids
6. Pause, ask questions, Pause... Review
Transitional Phrases
Words and ideas that connect one idea to the other; like road signs that guide readers from one sentence or paragraph to the next. They compare/contrast, show cause & effect, time or sequence, placement or importance.

Exp: also, and, too, because, since, so, after, before, below, next to, mainly, first last.
Sequence of ideas
Identifying the components of a story; the beginning, middle and the end. This is a key comprehensions strategy, especially for narrative texts.
Drafting
The preliminary stage of a written work in which the author begins to develop a cohesive product. Organizes thoughts.
Guidelines for writing a resume
1. Should be written in formal professional language & free from slang or controversial language.
2. Should be written in 3rd Person Format
3. Should highlight specific tasks and accomplishments and exclude "general" cliche attributes.
4. Needs to be precise and to the point, exclude embellishing any skills.
Types of writing
1. Reflective Essay
2. Autobiography
3. Narrative
4. Editorial
5. Report
6. Memorandum
7. Summary
8. Abstract
9. Play
10. Resume
Literature: Organizational Patterns
1. Chronological
2. Compare/Contrast
3. Explain & Define
4. Cause & Effect
Persuasive Discourse
Is writing used to persuade another or the audience.
3 Types:
> Deliberative Oratory
> Forensic Oratory
> Epideictic Oratory
Deliberative Oratory
Type of persuasive discourse used in politics, hortative, or advisory situations.
- seeks to persuade a person to do something or accept another point of view.
Epideictic Oratory
Type of persuasive discourse that is not concerned with persuading as to pleasing or inspiring.
EX: Motivational Speaker
Prewriting Techniques
Reporter's Questions, Mind mapping, brainstorming or listing, storyboarding, storyboarding ,creating organization charts, flowcharting, or researching
Reporter's Questions
Part of the Stages of Writing: 5 Questions about the subject you are writing on: Who, What, When, Where
Mind mapping
a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas
flowcharting
Uses diagrams to represent a process
storyboarding
A plan and organization for the visuals of a literary work
Literary Discourse
> Known as Creative Writing
> reflects the writer's use of imagination & creative thinking
Self-Expressive Discourse
writing a speech that focuses on the identity & experiences of the writer
Writing Process
5 Stages: don't have to be done in order.
1. Prewriting
2. Drafting
3. Revising
4. Editing
5. Publishing
Extemporaneous Speech
> a limited preparation speech
> based on research & origional analysis
Persuasive Writing
> The emphasis is on the reader
> Purpose is to change the reader's mind or move the reader to action.
Biography
A written account of another person's life.
Memoir
A historical account or biography written from personal knowledge or special sources
Report
a spoken or written account of something that one has observed, heard, done or investigated.
Editorial
> commissioning or preparing material for publication
> a newspaper article written by or on behalf of and "editor" that gives an opinion on a topic or issue.
Abstract
> existing in thought, theory or concept.
> Not finished
> A summary of the contents of a book, article, or formal speech.
Written Communication
> precise & direct
> chosen w/ great thought & deliberation
> less personal
> driven by logic & explicitness
> validated by the author's credibility
> non-retractable
> objective
Expository Discourse
> Explains or describes a topic
> Factual academic language in classroom lectures, oral presentations or homework
Prewriting
> any activity used to motivate or encourage creative thought before writing.
> Moves the writer from the thinking stage to the writing stage.
Reflective Essay
> A form of writing that examines & observes the progress of a writer's individual experience.
> Explains & Analyzes the development of the writer & discusses future goals.
Autobiography
An account of a person's life written by that person
Reader Response
The true meaning of the text is all up to the readers interpretation of it
Comprehension Strategies
> Monitoring
> Metacognition
> Graphic/Semantic Organizers
> Answering Questions
> Generating Questions
> Story Structure
> Summarize
Metacognition
> How we evaluate, plan & monitor our approach to a task
> "thinking about thinking"
> Comprehension Strategy
Graphic Organizers
a visual-spatial organization of information to help students understand presented concepts
Semantic Organizer
> graphic organizers that look somewhat like a spider web.
> also called semantic webs
Summarize
> Tell in your own words what a passage is about
> Including only the central idea and most important supporting details.
> Does not include opinions or judgement.
Ven Diagram
A diagram to show differences, simallarity, and things that are the same.
Chicago Style Citation
Last Name, First Name. Title of book in italics. Edition Number. Publication location: Publisher name, Year of publication.
APA Format
> Style and format specified by the American Psychological Association. Commonly used for scientific or research writing.
> Citations: Last name of author, First Initial of author.(copyright year). Title. City of Publication: Publisher.
MLA Format
> Used mostly within liberal arts & humanities
Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily.
>Uses 12 point font and double space.
> In the heading you are supposed to have your name, teacher's name, homeroom, number, and the date.

> Citations: Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors, Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs URL or DOI). 2nd container's title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).
Experiential Response
the process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as "learning through reflection on doing".
Aesthetic Response
An effective response or reaction to the text. Reflects the reader's personal and emotional response. The reader's thoughts and feelings to a literary selection are considered very important components of literary interpretation.
Pragmatic Response
> Doing what works best
> Concerned w/ real-world application rather than ideals or abstract notions
Voice
A writer's unique use of language that allows a reader to perceive a human personality in his or her writing.
Style
The author's choices regarding language, sentence structure, voice, and tone in order to communicate with the reader.
Teaching Stratagies
help to activate students' curiosity about a class topic, engage students in learning, develop critical thinking skills, keep students on task, engender sustained and useful classroom interaction, and, in general, enable and enhance the learning of course content.
Visual Learning
> Students prefer to see visual instructions
> Instructors should convey information with illustrations, diagrams, and demonstrations.

Techniques: Visual Organizers & Pictures
Auditory Learning
> Learning through what it heard
>Instructors should convey information with clear sequential descriptions of tasks.

Techniques: verbal direction, group discussions, verbal reinforcement, group activities, reading aloud, and putting information into a rhythmic pattern such as a rap, poem, or song.
Kinesthetic Learning
> Learning by performing a task or handling items
> Instructors should convey information using tools and aides that the students can touch and feel.

Techniques: When learning, it helps for these students to move around; this increases the students' understanding, with learners generally getting better marks in exams when they can do so. Kinesthetic learners usually succeed in activities such as chemistry experiments, sporting activities, art and acting; they also may listen to music while learning or studying.
Revision
altering or amending something already written or printed, in order to make corrections, improve, or update
Revision Strategies
> The Big Picture
> Focus on Development
> Structure
> Sentence Structure
Revision: The Big Picture
Look at the first draft in terms of larger, abstract qualities:

> is the original purpose of the writing fulfilled?
> does the writing cover the required material?
> has the writing addressed the specific audience?
> does the overall structure seem sensible in terms of your intentions?
> is your sense of authority over the topic clear?
Revision: Development
> does the main idea of the paper have enough supporting material?
> does the supporting material relate logically to the main idea?
Revision: Structure
> is there a controlling idea that can be traced through the writing?
> does your lead into the paper create interest and focus?
> do individual paragraphs link to the controlling idea?
> do individual paragraphs have clear topic sentences?
> does the ending provide a sense of wrapping up ideas?
Revision: Sentence Structure
> are sentences clear?
> does the word order in sentences seem logical?
> are verbs usually in the active voice?
> does word choice seem sensible for the purpose and audience?
Mind Mapping
a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas
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