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27 terms

NP: Biology 0.5 Unit 3 Ch.7

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Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Created the first microscope.
Robert Hooke
Named/Discovered cells. He looked into a slice of cork. He thought that the chamber looking things looked like cell in a monastery.
Robert Brown
Discovered the nucleus. Saw a blob in the middle of the cell.
Matthais Scheiden
Stated plants are made out of cells.
Theodor Schwann
Stated animals are made out of cells.
Rudolf Virchow
Stated all cells arise from preexisting cells.
Living things
Are composed of cells.
Cells
Basic units of structure and function in living things.
Preexisting cells
All cells come from this...
Cell Membrane
-Controls what materials pass into and out of the cell = "Selectively Permeable" -Made from primarily of lipids and proteins. (Phospholipids)
Cytoplasm
-Contains various organelles -Area between the cell membrane and nucleus. "Jelly-like" material.
Cell Wall
(Plants ONLY) -Supports and protects the cell -Rigid structure outside the cell membrane -Made of cellulore.
Nucleus
-Stores hereditary info (DNA) -Control center -Most prominent organelle.
Nucleolus
Where ribosomes are sythesized -Found within the nucleus -Made of RNA and protein.
Nuclear Envelope
-Double membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
Cytoskeleton
-Gives the cell structure; helps maintain shape and size -Network of protein strands (Scaffold)
Microfilaments
Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell
Microtubules
hollow tubes of protein, support the cell and moves organelles within the cell
Ribosomes
-Sites of protein sythesis - Most numerous organelles - Made of RNA and protein in the nucleus and transport to the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Moves molecules from one part of the cell to another -Intracellar highway -System of membranous tubules and sacs.
Golgi Apparatus
-Processing, packaging, and secreting organelle -Works with the (ER) -Modifies protein for export.
Lysosome
-(Animals ONLY) -Digests carbohydrate, lipids, RNA, and DNA. -Known as the "clean-up crew" / "Suicide sac"of the cell.
Vacuole
-Fluid-filled organelle that stores enzymes and metabolic wastes -Can occupy up to 90% of the cells volume.
Chloroplast
-(Plants ONLY) -Traps energy of the sun and converts it into chemical energy.
Mitochondria
-"Power House" -Transfer energy from organic compounds to ATP (main energy currency) -Inner membrane has many long folds (Cristae)
Centrioles
-(Animals ONLY) -Used in cell division -Made of microtubules -Arranged in nine groups of three.
Cilia and Flagella
-Hair-like organelle that extends from the surface of a cell to assist in movements.