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understanding media exam 2
Terms in this set (103)
Why do we regulate content?
to protect children from vulnerable audiences
What does the free market regulate?
problems will be resolved within the marketplace by the age-old forces of supply and demand
Free market word association-
within the marketplace
What is self regulation?
The industry itself establishes ethical guidelines and sanctions through various industry organizations
Give three industry self regulating organizations.
1. family hour 2. tv ratings 3. "raised eyebrows"
Government agencies, such as the __________ and the __________ and __________ and __________ , enforce laws & regulations.
FCC, FTC; Congress/Commerce
Government regulation includes:
-State & Local governments
-The White House
What does the FCC regulate?
What is electronic media?
broadcast, cable, MVPDS, internet
How does Congress work with the FCC?
By setting federal mandates that supervise/approve their budget.
When was the FCC established?
Who appoints the commissioners of the FCC?
How many commissioners are there?
Who are the commissioners directly responsible to?
Who is the designated member of the FCC?
the 1 chairman
How are their terms?
Who approves the presidential appointments?
How long is a commissioner's term?
How many commissioners can be from the same political party?
What does the FTC oversee?
commercial speech, false advertising
What is the legislative role in regulation?
Ex. 1996 Telecommunications Act
What is the role of the executive branch in regulation?
-appoints FCC commissioners & judges
-international trade with senate
The freedoms of speech and press guaranteed by the 1st were intended to encourage a __________ __________ __________ __________ .
wide-open marketplace of ideas.
The 1st provides protection for __________ __________ . Why?
minority viewpoints; the majority doesn't need protection.
(T/F) Free speech is absolute.
(T/F) Courts have determined that some types of speech deserve more protection than other types.
What is high value speech?
political speech, debate
What is low value speech?
What type of speech is advertising?
(T/F) Broadcasting has more freedom when it comes to free speech.
Airways are believed to be __________ __________ .
Broadcasting has __________ __________ that justify imposing certain restraints.
Because of the __________ __________ , free channels are more restricted.
(T/F) Cable has more freedom in regards to free speech.
What is the Miller V. California definition of obscenity?
The average person applying contemporary, community standards would find the work, taken as a whole, to be: of prurient interest, patently offensive, lacking serious, artistic, political, scientific value
To reiterate, to be obscene is to be....(3 THINGS)
1. prurient interest
2. patently offensive
3. lacking serious, artistic, political, scientific value
For all sexually oriented material that does not meet obscenity standards, there is the regulation of __________ .
Indecency is an issue for __________ , not __________ or __________ media.
broadcasting; not cable or print
Major crackdown by FCC on indecency because of what stunt?
JT & Janet @ superbowl
FCC V. Pacifica Foundation refers to which case?
George Carlin 7 dirty words
What are the 7 dirty words?
$hit, pis$, f
According to the Supreme Court, the FCC can punish broadcast stations that aired indecent content during which times of the day?
When children are most likely to be in the audience
The FCC V. Pacifica Foundation case led to what?
the creation of 'safe harbors' from 10pm to 6am
What are the characteristics for defamation?
(T/F) libel is written; slander is spoken.
(T/F) A defamation case is criminal.
Plaintiff sues for damage. Either ______ or ______.
compensatory or punitive
How do regulators protect children?
protect children from unfair advertising tactics.
How do regulations protect children from unfair advertising tactics?
limiting ad time in children; 12 minutes per hour on weekdays, 10.5 minutes per hour on weekends.
There must be a clear separation between ______ and ______. This is accomplished by imposing 5 second ______.
program content & advertising; bumpers
(T/F) Host selling is allowed.
A young audience's eagerness to try new experiences and new media can be explained by a set of ______ and ______ abilities.
Using you ______ ______, you have the ability to memorize facts.
While the crystalline intelligence is highly developed, it allows us to absorb things like?
-agendas of others
Word association for crystalline intelligence--
vertical thinking (systematic, logical)
What does crystalline intelligence helps with?
meaning matching tasks
Using your ______ ______, you have the ability to be creative, insightful, and perceptive?
Word association for fluid intelligence--
lateral thinking (more intuitive, creative)
Using your ______ ______, you have the ability to understand and control your emotions?
All mass media goes through a ______ ______ ______. They share a commonality in their growth.
life cycle growth
What is the first stage of the life cycle pattern?
1. innovation stage
what is technological innovation?
makes a channel of transmission possible
what is a marketing innovation?
an entrepreneur recognizes need in population and uses new technology to satisfy need
how does marketing innovation work?
-get people to recognize the value of the new medium
-mass like orientation
-turn need into a habit
what is the second stage?
2. penetration stage
which stage is marked by the greater portion of the public accepting the new medium?
the penetration stage
how does a medium reach the penetration stage
by appealing to a very large, heterogeneous population to reach this stage
public reaction based on medium's ability to satisfy new ____ better than an existing one.
the third stage is the ____ ____.
when the medium commands the most attention from the public and generates the most revenue compared to the other media, it is the ____ ____.
what indicates peak?
-generates most revenue
what are all the stages of media life cycle?
What is media convergence?
the blending together of previously separate channels of communication such that the characteristics have divided those channels into distinctly different media have been eroding
what are the three types of convergence?
Under ____ ____, innovations are storing and transmitting information bringing changed to mass media industries.
What makes technological convergence important is that it challenges....
the notion that channels are distinct from one another.
(T/F) Media switched from analog to digital coding.
____ coding is the recording, storage, and retrieval of information that relies on the physical properties of a medium.
what does digital coding refer to?
using a sequence of symbols or bytes that are not dependent on physical characteristics
the industry switched from ____ ____ to ____ ____.
copper wire to fiber optics
explain how importance switched with technological convergence.
channels are much less important than the audience needs and messages.
what are the two advantages of technological convergence?
1. a single message can generate many streams of revenue
2. when the message appears in one channel, it stimulates audience members to expose themselves to the message in other channels.
What are the broadcast stations?
broadcasting economic model?
like having divorced parents; time on the day depends on who is controlling you
during syndication, you are with mommy who likes the 11 or 4 news or oprah or reruns
during prime time, daddy plays sports events and current tv shows
who is the engine of the media model?
what is choice of the advertiser?
they can either participate in the process by buying national or local ads
Local affiliates must be carried by MVPDs because of the '____ ____' laws
who plays the media game of economics?
what do advertisers do for the game?
bring money or space in the media to present message to target audience
who competes for talent, audiences, and advertising dollars?
____ ____ trade time, skills, and talent for pay and benefits.
below the line employees are mostly....
craft, clerical people with common skills
above the line employees are mostly....
creative types with talent to attract audience
what do media company managers do?
oversee construction and distribution of messages
give 2 examples of direct costs.
what are indirect costs?
payments of time when you expose yourself to messages or money spent for advertised products
____ ____ sell your time to advertisers.
____ ____ is added to the price of the product & you pay it when you buy and advertised product.
what are the two media industry strategies?
1. maximize profits
2. minimize expenses
how to increase revenue streams?
-appeal to more than one audience
-generate money from one audience in multiple ways
-merger and acquisition activities
how to minimize expenses?
low pay for below the line employees?
example of an economy of scale?
buying in stock saves you money
example of scope?
CNN making a package for the purpose on airing it, but then repurposing it by rerunning it or selling it other platforms
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