METEO 122 Ch7
Terms in this set (62)
the smallest scale of air motion
Make waves taller
can last from minutes to hours. usually less than 100km across. (thunderstorms and tornados) some have a strong vertical developement
Divided in to Planetary-scale and Synoptic-scale winds
Large scale winds that extend around the entire globe and can remain essentially unchanged for weeks at a time.
about 1000 km in diameter and are easily identified on weather maps. ex. Mid-latitude cyclones and anticyclones.
movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water moves over the land, forcing the heated, less dense air above the land to rise
a breeze blowing toward the sea from the land, especially at night, owing to the relative warmth of the sea.
a local wind produced by the movement of cooler air from the valley that moves up a mountain slope
The movement of air caused by cool air sinking and moving down the slope of a mountain.
Warm winds that flow down the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
dry winds that blow down mountains often causing an avalanche
The local name given to a Chinook wind in Southern California - increase the
An extremely strong cold downslope wind that occurs in parts of Antarctica
A cold, dry wind from the north
a strong, cold, dry northeast wind blowing in the upper Adriatic.
a light breeze that blows into a city from the surrounding country side. best observed on clear nights when the urban heat island is most prounounced
a system of vertical and horizontal air circulation predominating in tropical and subtropical regions and creating major weather patterns.
are regions of high pressue and gentle winds at about 30 degrees north and south latitude
Prevailing winds that blow northeast from 30 degrees north latitude to the equator and that blow southeast from 30 degrees south latitude to the equator
The prevailing winds that blow from the horse latitudes toward the doldrums
a region of the ocean near the equator, characterized by calms, light winds, or squalls.
Cell that moves air form 30 degrees to 60 degrees latitude
winds that blow west to east between 30 and 60 degrees in the northern and southern hemispheres
Weak circulation cell that occurs between 60 and 90 degrees latitude. It results from upper air masses moving northward and descending at the poles, while at the same time surface air flows south.
Blow cold air away from the polls
boundary at which cold polar air meets the warmer air of the middle latitudes
the quasi-continuous belt of low atmospheric pressure that lies between the subtropical high-pressure belts of the Northern and Southern hemispheres.
Intertropical convergence Zone (ITCZ)
The region where the surface trade winds meet
a significant belt of atmospheric high pressure situated around the latitudes of 30°N in the Northern Hemisphere and 30°S in the Southern Hemisphere.
The pressure zone located at about the latitude of the Arctic and Antarctic circles.
A high-pressure cell situated over either polar region. High or low pressure zone. Top and bottom of circle.
huge shallow thermal anticyclone that is NOT semipermanent over Asia. formed from intense cooling of land
a huge high-pressure air mass that often forms over the Atlantic. Its clockwise rotation sends warm, moist southerly winds into the state causing thunderstorms and wet summer seasons. The Bermuda high can, though, become stalled and stagnant and actually produce drought.
weather system typically hovering over Bering Sea that brings high winds and storms to much of Alaska
The subplot low-pressure area that is centered near Iceland on charts that show mean sea level pressure.
A regional scale wind system that predictably change direction with the passing of the seasons. These winds blow from land to sea in the winter, and from sea to land in the summer. In summer they are often accompanied with precipitation.
A series of large waves, that occur in the westerlies, in the mid-latitudes in both the northern and southern hemisphere.
- Airflow in Rossby waves is generally eastward.
- Rossby waves tend to be stationary of drift slowly from west to east.
- Rossby waves usually consist of 4 to 6 meanders that encircle the globe.
- Rossby waves are long wave patterns that appear on upper-level wind charts.
Polar jet stream
jet stream that can bring down cold weather conditions from the north
Subtropical Jet Stream
narrow band of high speed winds in the upper atmosphere, at around 12 km above the surface of the earth that occurs where hadley cells meet ferrel cells
Huge circular moving current systems dominate the surfaces of the oceans.
(oceanography) a warm ocean current that flows along the equator from the date line and south off the coast of Ecuador at Christmas time
- episodes of ocean warming in the eastern tropical Pacific.
"Normal" year, easterly trade winds and ocean currents pool warm water in the western Pacific, allowing upwelling of nutrient rich water off the West coast of South America.
the atmospheric pressure conditions corresponding to the periodic warming of El Nino and cooling of La Nina.
A linkage between weather changes occurring in widely separated regions of the globe
The _____ is one reason for the general subsidence in the latitude zone from 20 to 35 degrees?
release of latent heat and coriolis force
have their greatest impact on air temperature during winter.
cause aridity along adjacent coastal areas.
Concerning rainfall patterns, areas of persistent high pressure tend to cause:
North to south air flow
George Hadley's ideas about atmospheric circulations were concerned with the:
In the low and middle latitudes, warm currents generally:
flow poleward on east sides of continents.
The wave-like or meandering pattern of the upper level winds in middle latitudes is of major importance for:
transporting heat between equator and poles.
The term Southern Oscillation refers to:
the seesaw pattern of atmospheric pressure between the eastern and western Pacific Ocean.
Typical El Nino winter weather includes:
wetter than normal in the southwestern U.S.
A primary factor causing monsoon circulations is:
pressure difference caused by greater temperature changes over continents compared to oceans.
Synoptic scale circulations are of what size, approximately?
between 1000 and 5000 km
According to Hadley, the most important factor causing circulation patterns in the atmosphere is:
the equator-pole temperature contrast.
Subtropical high pressure zones are usually associated with:
clear or nearly clear weather.
diverging surface winds.
The rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water
The primary force causing ocean currents is:
the major surface winds.
A _____ is an example of a mesoscale wind?
The rainfall distribution at a station located along the equator generally shows a:
pattern of adequate or abundant precipitation all year around.
The winds in the middle and upper troposphere over the midlatitudes are fastest:
The first American weather forecaster was: