2nd Great Awakening
series of evangelical Protestant revivals that swept over America; highly emotional camp meetings
Calvinist president of Yale who led campus revivals
taught predestination (Calvinism); father of Harriet Beecher Stowe
parts of New York that were so heavily evangelized during the Great Awakening that it was said to have no fuel (unconverted population) left to burn (convert)
broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions that are found among conservative Protestant Christians
(Adventists) were followers of William Miller; believed that precise calculations were possible and that the exact date of the return of the Messiah could be known
Cold Water Army
intent on removing alcohol; pledged to drink nothing but water
Maine became the first state to prohibit alcohol
sponsored the Maine Laws; candidate for president on the Prohibition ticket in 1880
Martha Washington Societies
worked to assist and reform female alcoholics
became famous for his temperance novel "Ten Nights in a Bar Room and What I Saw There"
(1) Fewer parents controlled their child's selection of a mate; (2) Wives acted more like companions; (3) Divorce was difficult, but somewhat less restrictive (infidelities)
The Cult of Domesticity (aka- The Cult of True Womanhood)
"Home was the women's place and men were almost always the breadwinners."
The "doctrine of two spheres"
men occupied the public sphere of economic affairs and women became guardians of the private sphere of the home
large growth of free public schools from 1820-1850; schools were also seen as a way to reduce the gap between the rich and poor
lawyer/politician from MA who advocated free public education
created the dictionary that helped to standardize the American vocabulary
policies that actually hurt poor families who were dependent upon their children working
stressed industry, punctuality, sobriety, and frugality (taught in schools)
served as the basis for reading and morals (created by PA teacher, William McGuffey)
Troy Female Seminary
NY; founded by Emma Willard in 1814
Hartford Female Seminary
CN; founded by Catharine Beecher in 1823
Mount Holyoke College
MA; founded by Mary Lyon in 1837
founded by two Presbyterian ministers; first college in the US to regularly admit black students; oldest college to admit women
started a school for the deaf (American School for the Deaf)
"Discovery of Asylums"
Asylums were created in the 1820s to house criminals, lunatics, and paupers
publicized the poor conditions of prisons, poorhouses, and insane asylums, and lobbied for corrective actions
American Colonization Society
the primary vehicle to support the return of free African Americans to what was considered greater freedom in Africa; helped to found the colony of Liberia
William Lloyd Garrison
launched abolitionist journal called The Liberator
American Antislavery Society
founded by Garrison; society against slavery
Arthur and Lewis Tappan
co-founded the American Antislavery Society and "Liberator" with Garrison; also financially supported the Underground Railroad
Theodore Dwight Weld
minister turned abolitionist, writer, editor, and speaker; co-wrote "American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses"
first abolitionist political party
black abolitionist who published "Walker's Appeal;" advocated violence against slave masters
black abolitionist; escaped slave who wrote "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass"
spoke for women's rights, abolition, and prison reform; delivered the speech "Ain't I A Woman?"
black abolitionist woman who helped lead the Underground Railroad
"The Father of the Underground Railroad"
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
"rebellious" daughters of a South Carolina slaveholder; became famous abolitionists and women's rights advocates
London Anti-Slavery Conference
international antislavery conference 1840
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
outraged over he refusal of the male antislavery leaders to seat female delegates at the London Anti-Slavery Conference; later organized plans for the nation's first women's rights convention
Seneca Falls Convention
first women's rights convention (1848)
Declaration of Sentiments
issued at the Seneca Falls Convention that listed women's rights
bloomers (replaced long skirts) were named after her; temperance and social reformer who published "The Lily"
toured the country, lecturing against slavery and for women's rights
Susan B. Anthony
gave nearly 100 speeches per year on women's rights for 45 years
movement to attempt to create the "perfect society"
practiced Christian perfectionism; believed Jesus' 2nd coming had already occurred
believed that individuals could transcend material reality and ordinary understanding and reach a higher form of reason; main theme of American Romanticism
Ralph Waldo Emerson
most admired transcendentalist; wrote an address to Harvard called "The American Scholar" that encouraged Americans to create a new American culture
main publication of the Transcendentalists
communal group of transcendentalists
Henry David Thoreau
young disciple of Emerson; associated with Walden Pond and "Civil Disobedience"
Thoreau's experiment in solitary living
Thoreau's essay where he said that people have a duty to stand up to a government which practices injustice
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