APUSH Study Guide Ch. 2-3
let me know if i should add or amend anything. Ones with "*" i could not find very much info about, or they were too vague to fit in the card.
Terms in this set (50)
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
These were developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Ex. London Company and Plymouth Company.
Joint-stock company that established the first permanent English colony (Jamestown) in the Americas.
William Penn's "Holy Experiment"
Created Philadelphia to include any and all religions; turned out to be a success
Dissenters from Mass. Bay
Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams(founded Rhode Island)
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Half Way Covenant
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Roger Williams Philosophy
That the church be separated from the government.
The Barbadian Connection
By late 1660s, sugar production made Barbados the wealthiest of the English colonies, resulting in a population boom (60,000; 60% African slaves). By 1670, Charles Town was estbl. North America in present day South Carolina, and influences of British colonists are present to this day in Barbados.
White(or recently freed black) male over 21 that is not a slave nor an indentured servant. Can marry, own property, vote, etc.
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
Trading of African slaves from West Africa to the New World.
65% to West Indies, 35% to Brazil, and 5% to the English Colonies.
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
He was the royal governor of the Dominion of New England. Colonists resented his enforcement of the Navigation Acts and the attempt to abolish the colonial assembly. Eventually overthrown and caught trying to escape dressed as a woman.
The Dominion of New England
Centralized government imposed upon the New England colonies by England in 1686 as a result of the Restoration monarchy's need for control and renewed colonial interest. The Dominion was governed by New York governor Sir Edmund Andros. The consolidation was strongly opposed by the colonists because of the elimination of all colonial legislatures, and was ended by colonial insurrection.
Feudal Land System in the Colonial Period
Colonists would receive land in exchange for military service.
"City on a Hill"
Phrase by James Winthrop that means they are closer to God, and that God is always watching.
"A Model of Christian Charity"
Sermon given by James Winthrop aboard the 'Arbella', stating the ideals on which colonists should strive, and that them being on hill means they are closer to God and that he is always watching.
Founded in the name of Queen Mary by Lord Baltimore as a refuge for Catholics.
Jacob Leisler seized control of lower New York from 1689 to 1691. The uprising, which occurred in the midst of Britain's "Glorious Revolution," reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority was restored in 1691 by British troop
Glorious Revolution in New England
Led to the collapse of the Dominion of New England and the Province of Maryland
1676-Nathaniel Bacon gathered fellow frontiersman to attack Natives to gain more land; ended up driving Gov. Berkeley away and burned down Jamestown. Ended when Bacon died of illness.
The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.
a.k.a. "El Pope Rebellions"1680 rebellion of Native Americans in Northwestern province of Spanish America, caused by Spanish attempt to eliminate all Kachina (dolls that represented guardian spirits) worship. The Native American victory allowed the Hopi to continue to practice their own religion along with Chrisitanity and led to reforms in Spanish policies towards Native Americans.
Salem Witch Trials
1692, Mass.- Series of accusations of witchcraft resulted in 19 people being hanged. Cotton Mathers was judge.
If a wealthy colonist were to pay for the voyage of another colonist to the New World, they would be allotted 50 acres per person
Written by Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower; first written plan for a civil body with which to govern in America; demonstrated majority rule and direct democracy.
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
1639- First written constitution in America outlining self government
Maryland and Virginia. Major export is tobacco. Used headright system and had the Church of England
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Black populations of different colonies
Percentages were generally larger in the South than in the Northern Colonies
Social Conflicts/ Tension in Virginia
Bacon's Rebellion; prominent distinctions between lower and upper class colonists; definite aristocracy
Founded Massachusetts and governed it; gave "Model of Christian Charity" speech and believed Boston was a 'city upon a hill'
Founded Jamestown; motivated colonists to stop looking for gold and start building shelters and search for food.
Made tobacco the cash crop of Virginia; married Pocahontas
1622 and 1644; relations were good with Natives, until the English wanted more land. They started taking their land by force, provoking the Natives
New England Families
'Nuclear families': Families with a mother, father, and generally two children. These immediate families grew into extended families, as a result of the low mortality rates, thus the 'invention' of grandparents
Believed that people had personal connections with God, and that she had one herself. Forced to leave Massachusetts and went to live in Rhode Island. Her followers, 'antinomianists', founded the colony of New Hampshire, 1639
Blacks in Virginia
Most slaves were field hands on plantations, and if free it was very difficult to be successful
A contract made between someone who wants to go to America and a wealthy contributor, who pays for the person's passage in exchange for his servitude for a time
colonial period; term used to describe indentured servants who had finished their terms of indenture and could live freely on their own land.
Slavery in the 13 Colonies
Mostly prevalent in the Southern Colonies, due to the amount of manual labor needed to maintain the fields. Slaves in the Northern Colonies performed more domestic services, like house maids
With Indian resistance growing due to rapid English expansion, Massachusetts and Connecticut took military action in 1637. They attacked and burned villages, slaughtering many Natives, including the complete obliteration of Mystic Village in Connecticut. By the end of the year Pequot resistance was eliminated and the natives were taken as prisoner and their land awarded to the colonists
King Phillip's War
War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
Anglo-Dutch in New York
Stayed after the British took over New York.*
Population in New England 17th century
Pop. was growing exponentially; parents were having ludicrous numbers of children from 10 to 17 kids in one family; low mortality rates also contrubuted
Puritan vs Pilgrim Beliefs
Puritans(Non-separatists) wanted to reform the Church, while Pilgrims(Separatists) wanted to separate completely and follow their own faith
House of Burgesses
Representative body in Virginia;, the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
First Colleges in New England
Harvard(1636, Mass.), William & Mary(1693, Virginia), Yale(1701, Conn.)
Glorious Revolution in New York
Leisler's Rebellion(see card)
Social Hierarchy in New England vs Chesapeake Colonies
New England: No definite distinction between poor/rich
Chesapeake: Had slaves and aristocracy