Terms in this set (67)
What is the lumen of the digestive tract?
The lumen of the digestive tract describes the space inside.
What are the accessory organs to the digestive system?
pancreas, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder
What is the process called that moves nutrients into the blood or lymph.
What is the process called that releases digestive enzymes?
What is the layer of the digestive tract that is the only one that has direct contact with food before is it digested?
What are Sphincters?
Sphincters are muscles in circular arrangement, prevent backflow, are smooth muscles, are found at the beginning and end of the stomach.
What process propels the food down the esophagus into the stomach?
What is the name of the layer that forms the outer covering of the gastrointestinal tract?
What does chewing accomplish for digestion?
Chewing physically and mechanically breaks up the food, aids in forming the food into a consistency suitable for swallowing, increases the surface area of food exposed to digestive enzymes, actually mixes some enzymes with the food.
Where are the nerves and blood vessels of a human tooth located?
The digestion of what class of foods begins in the mouth?
Where is a bolus formed?
A bolus is formed in the mouth.
What organs of the digestive system does NOT produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process?
During the process of swallowing, the ________ closes the ________ leading to the lungs.
During the process of swallowing, the epiglottis closes the trachea leading to the lungs.
Where does the digestion of proteins begin?
The digestion of proteins begins in the stomach.
Where is chyme first formed?
Chyme is first formed in the stomach.
What conditions favor protein digestion?
High stomach acidity favors protein digestion.
a. decreases following a heavy meal.
b. controls the amount of material leaving the pyloric sphincter.
c. is unaffected by emotional state or external environmental factors.
d. may be retarded when stretch receptors on the stomach wall are activated.
e. is increased by hormones released in response to high stomach acidity.
What factors do NOT stimulate the stomach to pass on its contents to the small intestine?
19. depression and fear
What factors do stimulate the stomach to pass on its contents to the small intestine?
stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the stomach wall following a large meal, reduced fat or acid content of chyme in the duodenum, elation and relaxation
What speeds up the passage of food through the pyloric sphincter?
the larger number of mechanoreceptors in the stomach wall that are activated
Which parts of the GI tract show the greatest amount of nutrient absorption ?
What is the first part of the small intestine?
Where does the digestion of fats mostly occur?
How does the pancreas contribute to the overall digestion and utilization of nutrients?
as an accessory gland, to secrete bicarbonate, which helps neutralize highly acidic chyme, to release enzymes that break down carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids in the small intestine, to produce insulin and glucagon that help regulate the metabolism of sugar.
What enzymes digest proteins?
trypsin, chymotrypsin, aminopeptidase, pepsin
Where do ducts from the pancreas and liver enter the digestive system?
What ingredients are found in bile?
salts, cholesterol, pigments, lecithin
What is the function of bile in digestion?
Bile helps in the digestion of fats.
What enzyme(s) digest Fats?
What kinds of molecules are absorbed by the lymphatic system?
both monoglycerides and fatty acids
What kinds of molecules are absorbed directly into the blood from the intestine?
water. Ions, glucose, amino acids
The liver is assured "first choice" of all the nutrients absorbed by the intestine because of what structure?
hepatic portal vein.
What organ inactivates and detoxifies different organic compounds?
What are the functions of the liver?
formation of urea, formation of bile, detoxification of poisons, carbohydrate storage.
Which organ takes glucose out of the blood and stores it as glycogen?
what is the primary function of the large intestine?
removal of water from undigested food.
What structure is located at the juncture of the small and large intestines?
Which part of the colon connects directly to the rectum?
What substances are secreted by the intestinal mucosa?
secretin, cholecystokinin, GIP
What is the first hormone secreted by the intestinal tract in response to the presence of food?
What structure secretes a hormone that causes its own secretory cells to respond?
What substances would NOT be part of an ideal diet?
ample salt and sugar, saturated fat, cholesterol
In the traditional food pyramid of the USDA, what should be present in the human diet in the highest percentage?
During or shortly after a meal, most cells use what type of molecule as a source of energy?
What are all the possible uses of lipids in the human body?
energy, membrane structure, insulation
People who do not eat meat (vegetarians) must choose their food carefully to get the proper kinds and amounts of
d. amino acids.
e. fatty acids.
A high glycemic index is characteristic of what kind of diet?
diets rich in sugar.
True or False: Persons on low carbohydrate diets increase their risk of kidney damage.
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
Which vitamin functions in forming a blood clot?
True or False: Zinc is important in building strong bones and teeth
Lack of which element can lead to thyroid problems?
What is the element needed for blood clotting, nerve transmission, and bone and tooth formation?
A deficiency of vitamin C may give rise to what disease?
Scurvy is a deficiency disease related to which vitamin?
56. C (ascorbic acid)
Lack of which element can lead to goiter?
What is the element in hemoglobin whose absence leads to anemia?
What influences body weight?
Body weight is influenced by caloric intake, energy utilization, level of metabolism, age and sex.
Obesity is defined as what percent over the ideal weight?
20 to 25
What diseases do obese people have a greater risk of getting
Obese people have a greater risk of diabetes, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, death at all ages.
If caloric intake is balanced with energy output, what happens to body weight?
If caloric intake is balanced with energy output, body weight should remain stable.
What part(s) of the digestive system do not release secretions that assist digestion?
What substances when consumed increase HCl secretion.
cola drinks, coffee, chocolate, tea
True or False: Alzheimer's disease is a condition related to diet.
What are the names of the members of the B complex vitamins?
folic acid, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamine
True or False: Basal metabolism is associated with a digestive disorder.