Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called

cognitive maps

If a baseball player gets a hit after tapping the plate with the bat, he is more likely to repeat that behavior the next time he's up to the plate. Which of the following best explains this superstitious behavior?

reinforced behavior, even if it is accidental, is more likely to be repeated

Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of

operant conditioning

Experiments suggest that children exposed to a model who says one thing and does another will

talk in ways consistent with what the model says and act in a way consistent with what the model does

Who introduced the term behaviorism?

John B. Watson

Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ___ schedule of reinforcement


Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ___ schedule


Five-year old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of


After prolonged exposure to television violence, viewers became more indifferent to violence when later viewing a brawl, whether on TV or in real life. This finding best illustrates


Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate

classical conditioning

The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior is called


Robert was late for school, so he parked in a space reserved for teachers. Later, when he went to get his car, he noticed a yellow parking ticket under the windshield wiper. The parking ticket would be considered

positive punishment

Bandura's experiments indicate that ___ is important in the process of learning


What us the difference between a primary and a conditioned reinforcer

Primary reinforcers are unlearned and innately satisfying; conditioned reinforcers are learned

Which of the following is an unconditioned response

sweating in hot weather

Money is to food as ___ is to ___

secondary reinforcer; immediate reinforcer

After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ___ in operant conditioning

biological predispositions

Golf instruction that reinforces short putts before attempting to reinforce long putts best illustrates the process of


If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates

associative learning

Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit

intrinsic motivation

Spontaneous recovery refers to the

reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by

a biopsychosocial approach

Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)

negative reinforcer

Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with

novel tastes

Electronically recording, amplifying, and displaying information regarding subtle physiological responses is called


Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks

developed learned helplessness

Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of


Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuver themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates

the law of effect

In Pavlov's experiments, the dogs salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)

unconditioned response

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the CS was

the sound of a tone

A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ___ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ___ reinforcement

continuous; partial

Because Mandisa always picked up her newborn daughter when she cried, he daughter is now a real crybaby. In this case, picking up the infant served as a(n) ___ for crying.

positive reinforcer

After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates

observational learning

Myron quit gambling after he lost more than a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of


Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of

operant conditioning

A dramatic increase in children's violent play immediately after they viewed a video of the Power Rangers illustrates the role of television as a source of

observational learning

Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of


John B. Watson emphasized that

learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes

After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ___ occurred


Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ___ is to ___

positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer

Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of


Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying

operant conditioning

A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n)

conditioned response

After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing dug, people with alcohol dependence may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This best illustrates the importance of ___ in classical conditioning

cognitive process

The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the


Coffee shops that reward customers with one free cup of coffee after every ten coffee purchases are using a ___ reinforcement schedule


Most researchers who has examined the effects of viewing televised aggression conclude that

viewing violence leads children and teenagers to behave aggressively

On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ___ schedule


A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)

discriminative stimulus

If a ringing bell causes a dog to salivate because the bell has been regularly associated with food in the mouth, the UR is the

salivation to the food in the mouth

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording