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50 terms

PSYCH Take Home Ch. 6 Learning

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Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called
cognitive maps
If a baseball player gets a hit after tapping the plate with the bat, he is more likely to repeat that behavior the next time he's up to the plate. Which of the following best explains this superstitious behavior?
reinforced behavior, even if it is accidental, is more likely to be repeated
Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of
operant conditioning
Experiments suggest that children exposed to a model who says one thing and does another will
talk in ways consistent with what the model says and act in a way consistent with what the model does
Who introduced the term behaviorism?
John B. Watson
Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ___ schedule of reinforcement
foxed-ratio
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ___ schedule
variable-ratio
Five-year old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of
shaping
After prolonged exposure to television violence, viewers became more indifferent to violence when later viewing a brawl, whether on TV or in real life. This finding best illustrates
desensitization
Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
classical conditioning
The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior is called
shaping
Robert was late for school, so he parked in a space reserved for teachers. Later, when he went to get his car, he noticed a yellow parking ticket under the windshield wiper. The parking ticket would be considered
positive punishment
Bandura's experiments indicate that ___ is important in the process of learning
modeling
What us the difference between a primary and a conditioned reinforcer
Primary reinforcers are unlearned and innately satisfying; conditioned reinforcers are learned
Which of the following is an unconditioned response
sweating in hot weather
Money is to food as ___ is to ___
secondary reinforcer; immediate reinforcer
After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ___ in operant conditioning
biological predispositions
Golf instruction that reinforces short putts before attempting to reinforce long putts best illustrates the process of
shaping
If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates
associative learning
Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit
intrinsic motivation
Spontaneous recovery refers to the
reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by
a biopsychosocial approach
Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
negative reinforcer
Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with
novel tastes
Electronically recording, amplifying, and displaying information regarding subtle physiological responses is called
biofeedback
Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks
developed learned helplessness
Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of
generalization
Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuver themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates
the law of effect
In Pavlov's experiments, the dogs salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)
unconditioned response
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the CS was
the sound of a tone
A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ___ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ___ reinforcement
continuous; partial
Because Mandisa always picked up her newborn daughter when she cried, he daughter is now a real crybaby. In this case, picking up the infant served as a(n) ___ for crying.
positive reinforcer
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
observational learning
Myron quit gambling after he lost more than a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of
punishment
Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of
operant conditioning
A dramatic increase in children's violent play immediately after they viewed a video of the Power Rangers illustrates the role of television as a source of
observational learning
Two-year-old Philip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Philip's newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of
generalization
John B. Watson emphasized that
learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes
After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ___ occurred
extinction
Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ___ is to ___
positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
discrimination
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
operant conditioning
A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n)
conditioned response
After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing dug, people with alcohol dependence may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This best illustrates the importance of ___ in classical conditioning
cognitive process
The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the
CR
Coffee shops that reward customers with one free cup of coffee after every ten coffee purchases are using a ___ reinforcement schedule
fixed-ratio
Most researchers who has examined the effects of viewing televised aggression conclude that
viewing violence leads children and teenagers to behave aggressively
On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ___ schedule
variable-ratio
A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)
discriminative stimulus
If a ringing bell causes a dog to salivate because the bell has been regularly associated with food in the mouth, the UR is the
salivation to the food in the mouth