AP Environmental Science Unit 2
Terms in this set (203)
An organism that is incapable of photosynthesis and must obtain its energy by consuming other organisms
The successive levels of organisms consuming one another
The region of our planet where life resides, the combination of all ecosystems on Earth
Net Primary Productivity
The energy captured by producers in an ecosystem minus the energy producers respire
The sequence of consumption from producers through tertiary consumers
The process by which cells convert glucose into energy in the absence of oxygen
An organism that uses the energy of the Sun to produce usable forms of energy
A carnivore that eats secondary consumers
An organism that specializes in breaking down dead tissues and waste products into smaller particles
The total mass of all living matter in a specific area
A representation of the distribution of biomass, numbers, or energy among trophic levels
The proportion of consumed energy that can be passed from one trophic level to another
Gross Primary Productivity
The total amount of solar energy that producers in an ecosystem capture via photosynthesis over a given amount of time
The process by which producers use solar energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose
The amount of biomass present in an ecosystem at a particular time
The process by which cells unlock the energy of chemical compounds
A consumer that eats producers
A carnivore that eats primary consumers
Fungi and bacteria that convert organic matter into small elements and molecules that can be recycled back into the ecosystem
An organism that consumes dead animals
A complex model of how energy and matter move between trophic levels
A consumer that eats other consumers
The process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into energy, carbon dioxide, and water
A zebra is an example of
A primary consumer
1.5 kg C/m^2/year
If gross primary productivity in a wetland is 3 kg C/m^2/year and respiration is 1.5 kg C/m^2/year, what is the net primary productivity of the wetland?
The average efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels is approximately
the total energy captured by photosynthesis.
The gross primary productivity of an ecosystem is
depend on many subjective factors.
Ecosystem boundaries are
The conversion of ammonium (NH4+) into nitrite (NO2-) and then into nitrate (NO3-)
The conversion of nitrate (NO3-) in a series of steps into the gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and, eventually, nitrogen gas (N2), which is emitted into the atmosphere
A rapid increase in the algal growth of a waterway
The Phosphorus Cycle
The movement of phosphorus around the biosphere
The process by which producers incorporate elements into their tissues
Water that moves across the land surface and into streams and rivers
The movement of carbon around the biosphere
The movement of nitrogen around the biosphere
The movement of water through the biosphere
A nutrient required for the growth of an organism but available in a lower quantity than other nutrients
The process by which fungal and bacterial decomposers break down the organic matter found in dead bodies and waste products and convert it into inorganic compounds
The release of water from leaves during photosynthesis
The process by which fungal and bacterial decomposers break down the organic nitrogen found in dead bodies and waste products and convert it into inorganic ammonium (NH4+)
The movement of sulfur around the biosphere
Low in oxygen
The movement of matter within and between ecosystems
The transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater
The combined amount of evaporation and transpiration
A process by which some organisms can convert nitrogen gas molecules directly into ammonia
One of six key elements that organisms need in relatively large amounts: nitrogen; phosphorus; potassium; calcium; magnesium; and sulfur
Which one of the following is fixed from the atmosphere by bacteria?
Human construction of buildings and pavement affect the hydrological cycle by
is a limiting nutrient in many aquatic systems.
A measure of how much disturbance can affect flows of energy and matter in an ecosystem
The hypothesis that ecosystems experiencing intermediate levels of disturbance are more diverse than those with high or low disturbance levels
All land in a given landscape that drains into a particular stream, river, lake, or wetland
The rate at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance
An event, caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents, resulting in changes in population size or community composition
The study and implementation of restoring damaged ecosystems
During what stage of the hydrologic cycle is water released to the atmosphere from plants?
U.S. legislation has limited the levels of sulfur that can be present in gasoline. This measure was designed to limit which aspect of the sulfur cycle?
Ecosystems experiencing intermediate levels of disturbance
Which ecosystems are considered to be the most diverse?
An ecosystem containing a forest that has been clear-cut showed a dramatic decrease in the amount of nutrients and energy that were cycled in the ecosystem. This ecosystem has
I, II, and III
Which group of organisms performs cellular respiration?
Increase in nutrient concentration in the waters of the clear-cut watershed
What effect would clear-cutting an area within a watershed have on the water quality of a river running through the watershed?
II and III
Abiotic nitrogen fixation can occur through
I. nitrogen fixing organisms in legumes.
II. combustion of fossil fuels.
III. synthetic nitrogen production in plant fertilizers.
Approximately how much of the potential energy available from the Sun's rays hitting Earth is used in photosynthesis?
Which element is the primary component of fossil fuels?
Water that moves across the surface of the land into streams and rivers is called
Water, solar energy, and carbon dioxide
Which of the following are needed for photosynthesis?
Second law of thermodynamics
What law best relates to energy loss within an ecosystem?
Atmospheric nitrogen diffuses into the soil and is converted into ammonia.
What happens during nitrogen fixation?
Which nutrient is most often limiting in aquatic ecosystems?
Combustion of fossil fuels
Which activity is currently changing the carbon cycle?
Energy captured minus energy lost
Which best describes the concept of net primary production?
I and III
What human activities have affected the phosphorus cycle?
I. Creation of fertilizers
II. Decline of wetland areas
III. Use of dishwashing detergent
A layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of Earth, extending up to approximately 16 km (10 miles)
The layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly from 16 to 31 km (10-31 miles) above the surface of Earth
The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period of time
The percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface
The short-term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area, which include temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation, and wind speed
Global patterns of air movement that are initiated by the unequal heating of Earth
A convection current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S
A convection current in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60 degrees N and 60 degrees S and sinks at the poles, 90 degrees N and 90 degrees S
The cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands
Latent Heat Release
The release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water
The deflection of an object's path due to the rotation of Earth
The maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature
A convection current in the atmosphere that lies between Hadley cells and polar cells
A region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side
The heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of Earth and decreases in volume
The latitude that receives the most intense sunlight, which causes the ascending branches of the two Hadley cells to converge
The upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents
A large-scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere
A reversal of wind and water currents in the South Pacific
An oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water
Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
Which list is in the correct order of atmospheric layers starting from Earth's surface?
Which of the following has the highest albedo?
the tilt of Earth's axis.
Summer in the Northern Hemisphere is warmer primarily because of
increased atmospheric absorption of solar radiation.
the tilt of Earth's axis.
Which atmospheric layer contains the protective ozone layer?
a pressure increase.
Temperature change in adiabatic heating occurs due to
increases air temperature.
Latent heat release
Which of the following does NOT contribute to atmospheric convection currents?
The maximum amount of water vapor air can hold at a given temperature is called the
the deflection of atmospheric currents.
The Coriolis effect is responsible for
Cold polar air
Which of the following does NOT play a role in causing a rain shadow?
Which is the correct order of the convection cells, starting from the equator?
An impermeable, permanently frozen layer of soil
Temperate Rain Forest
A coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation
Tropical Rain Forest
A warm and wet biome found between 20 degrees N and 20 degrees S of the equator, with little seasonal temperature variation and high precipitation
A biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters
An aquatic region characterized by a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow
A cold and treeless biome with low-growing vegetation
A forest biome made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons
A biome prevailing at approximately 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation
A geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land
Tropical Seasonal Forest/Savanna
A biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons
Temperate Seasonal Forest
A biome with warm summers and cold winters with over 1 m (39 inches) of precipitation annually
Temperate Grassland/Cold Desert
A biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, and hot, dry summers
Permafrost is an important factor in which of the following biomes?
Temperate seasonal forest
Which of the following biomes has the highest soil nutrient levels?
The shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow
A marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along the coast in temperate climates
Describes a lake with a low level of productivity
The most diverse marine biome on Earth, found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline
Deep ocean water, located away from the shoreline where sunlight can no longer reach the ocean bottom
A region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes
Describes a lake with a high level of productivity
A zone of open water in lakes and ponds
The deeper layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient light for photosynthesis
A phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white
Aquatic biome submerged or saturated part of each year, supports emergent vegetation
A process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide
Describes a lake with a moderate level of productivity
The upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis
The narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide
Swamp that occurs along tropical and subtropical coasts, contains salt-tolerant trees.
The muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean
Which of the following ecosystems experiences harsh conditions due to conditions from tides?
Most of the photosynthesis in lakes and ponds occurs in the
Aquatic biomes are categorized by which of the following?
Which biome contains the aphotic zone?
The rain shadow effect can have a large effect on local climate. When a rain shadow effect occurs, which side of the mountain tends to receive more rain?
Warm air rises at the equator condenses at a high altitude, and falls back to Earth as rain.
What is the best explanation for the amount of rain that occurs at the equator?
Tropical Pacific Ocean
In what location does El Niño occur?
Along the west coast of a continent
Where is upwelling most likely to occur?
They redistribute heat from the equator to northern latitudes
What is one major role that gyres play in global climate?
have very high productivity as a result of high levels of nutrients.
Which of the following are examples of wetlands?
What latitude receives the most direct sunlight throughout the year?
In which level of the atmosphere does weather occur?
water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water.
Latent heat release occurs when
It decreases with altitude
What best describes the density of the atmosphere?
At what latitude is the surface of the Earth moving at the highest velocity?
The average weather that occurs over a long time
At what latitude is the surface of the Earth moving at the highest velocity?
How many species are estimated to exist on Earth?
Community A has a higher species evenness.
Two savanna communities both contain 15 plant species. In community A, each of the 15 species is represented by 20 individuals. In community B, 10 of the species are each represented by 12 individuals; the remaining 5 species are each represented by 3 individuals.Which statement best describes the two communities?
the branching pattern of evolutionary relationships.
The founder effect
Which evolutionary effect results in reduced genetic variation in a community?
the set of traits expressed in an individual.
A phenotype is
Which of the following processes create genetic diversity in a population?
The change in the genetic composition of a population over time due to random mating is called
The founder effect
In a particular zoo the population of spider monkeys has a higher proportion of individuals with light golden brown fur than spider monkeys in the wild. If the monkeys were recently captured from the wild and if fur color is largely determined by genetics, what evolutionary process is at work?
The relative proportion of individuals within the different species in a given area
The branching pattern of evolutionary relationships
The number of species in a given area
The complete set of genes in an individual
Evo. Artificial Selection
The process in which humans determine which individuals breed, typically with a preconceived set of traits in mind
The genetic process by which one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome during reproductive cell division
A set of traits expressed by an individual
A change in the genetic composition of a population as a result of descending from a small number of colonizing individuals
An individual's ability to survive and reproduce
Evolution below the species level
The process by which individuals move from one population to another and thereby alter the genetic composition of both populations
A reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its size
A random change in the genetic code produced by a mistake in the copying process
The death of the last member of a species
A change in the genetic composition of a population over time
A change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating
Evolution that gives rise to new species, genera, families, classes, or phyla
Evo. Natural Selection
The process in which the environment determines which individuals survive and reproduce
A physical location on the chromosomes with each cell on an organism
A trait that improves an individual's fitness
Which of the following is often a cause of sympatric speciation?
Which of the following would cause the most-rapid evolution?
evolution through genetic modification.
The Bt-cotton is an example of
The abiotic conditions under which a species can survive and reproduce is called its
A narrow fundamental niche
Which would be expected for a niche specialist?
A new food source outside its range of tolerance
Which of the following will NOT affect the distribution of a species?
How many mass extinction events have there been in Earth's history?
Extreme weather events
Which is NOT a significant cause of the current mass extinction event?
The result of two populations within a species evolving separately to the point that they can no longer interbreed and produce viable offspring
Physical separation of a group of individuals from others of the same species
The evolution of one species into two, without geographic isolation
The process of speciation that occurs with geographic isolation
Genetically Modified Organism
An organism produced by copying genes from a species with a desirable trait and inserting them into another species
A species that can live under a wide range of abiotic or biotic conditions
Areas of the world in which a species lives
The suite of abiotic conditions under which a species can survive, grow, and reproduce
A species that is specialized to live in a specific habitat of to feed on a small group of species
A large extinction of species in a relatively short period of time
Range of Tolerance
The limits to the abiotic conditions that s species can tolerate
The range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives