Honors Humanities (Early Urban Societies of the Middle East and Mesopotamia)

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Middle East
lies at the intersection between three tectonic plates: the Frucqn, Eurasian, and Arabian. Is also found on three continents: Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa
Asia Minor
geographic region in the south-western part of Asia compromising most of what is present day Turkey
Arabs
speak a Semitic language-Arabic and make up the majority of the people in the Middle East
Kurds
minorities in present day Iraq, Turkey, and Syria
strategic waterways
the Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea
Fertile Crescent
an arc shaped region that consists of two parts: 1) an area that stretches along the eastern Mediterranean coast and 2) Mesopotamia
Turks
speak a Central Asian language because that is their original homeland (some Turks settled in Asia Minor in the 11th century)-live in present day Turkey
Turkish Straights
the Dardanelles and the Bosporus join the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. the Straight of Hormuz links the Persian gulf with the Arabian Sea and into the Indian Ocean
Mesopotamia
or "Land between rivers" is the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Iranians
a part of the Indo-European family of languages, including Persian, Pashto, Avestan, Kurdish. Living in present day Iran
city-state
government that controls a small homogeneous population
cuneiform
a system of writing created by the Sumerians
Babylon
the capital of the Babylonian Empire on the Euphrates River
autocracy/autocratic
one person is the government, one person in charge
theism
(deism) belief in a god
Sumerians
one of the first groups of people to form a civilization with advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions,record keeping, and improved technology (in the Fertile Crescent)
bas relief
sculpture art that slightly projected from the background/wall
Babylonians(Amorites)
nomadic warriors that invaded Mesopotamia around 2000 B.C.
Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Kish, Umma
ancient Sumerian cities
scribe
to mark/score with a pointed instrument; to write; a writer
ziggurat
a pyramid shaped monument used to conduct religious rituals (Sumerians)
absolute monarchy
one person born into power, and thrower is not restrained by laws or a constitution
polytheism
belief in multiple gods
Behistun Rock
helped decipher cuneiform (similar to the Rosetta Stone)
kingdom
many cities, but still a homogeneous population
empire
controls a large, diverse population
Hammurabi
the king of the Babylonian Empire (empire was at its peak while Hammurabi was king) who created the Code of Hammurabi
barter
to trade without the use of money
Code of Hammurabi
a uniform code of laws using the principle of "an eye for an eye"
Epic of Gilgamesh
a long narrative poem of a great warrior (Gilgamesh), a king who treated his poeple badly. In the end Gilgamesh's fate was being told of a vision of going to "the land of no return"
theocracy
ruled by a god or religious leaders
Akkad(Agade)
a city-state north of Sumer
pharaoh
god-kings who ruled over Egypt
Re
the ancient Egyptian sun god
Horus
the sky god; the pharaoh was the human form when alive
Rosetta Stone/cartouche
a stone that helped translate hieroglyphics
Narmer(Menes)
(when the Egyptian kingdoms were United) first king of the unified Egypt
Vizier
the highest official in ancient Egypt to serve the king or pharaoh
Upper Egypt
south Egypt (higher elevation)
ka
spirit
delta
where a river meets an ocean and deposits sediment
Osiris/Isis
God of the dead, ruler of the underworld
pyramid
large tombs that helped pharaohs get into the afterlife
papyrus
material used for writing and ship building
Nubia
region along the Nile that was temporarily Egyptian dominated
Khufu
the second pharaoh of the 4th dynasty in Egypt.
Lower Egypt
north Egypt (lower elevation)
"gift of the Nile"
yearly flooding that brought water and rich soil
pantheon
a temple dedicated to all the gods
hieroglyphics
the written language of ancient Egypt
Old/Middle/New Kingdom
O.K. (2660-2180BCE) M.K. (2055-1650BCE) N.K. (1550-1075BCE)
Book of the Dead
a list that you testify to so your soul can be weighed to get into the afterlife
Giza (Gizeh)
an Egyptian city where the pyramids were locates
ma'at
balance
Memphis
ancient capital of Lower Egypt
Valley of the Kings
hidden tombs of the pharaohs so the tombs wouldn't be raided
Akhenaten
built a new capital and attempted to change the religion and close temples
Hyksos
a people of mixed Semitic and Asian descent who invaded Egypt and settled in the Nile delta circa 1640 BC. They formed the 15th and 16th dynasties of Egypt and ruled a large part of the country until driven out circa 1532 BC.
Hatshepsut
female pharaoh who stepped in for her young step-son
Aten
he disk of sun god
Thebes
city around the south Nile River
Ramses II
3rd pharaoh of the 19th dynasty of Egypt
Tutankhamun
also known as "King Tut"; the most recognizable and famous pharaoh; even thought his reign was unimportant but the discover of his tomb is among the greatest archaeological discoveries of all time
Phoenicians
created the phonetic alphabet (were based on trading)
Tyre, Sidon, Byblos
cities of the ancient Phoenicians
Carthage
Phoenician city found in present day Tunisia
Hebrews
(also known as Jews or the Israelites) speak a Semitic language and live in the present day country of Israel
Palestine
Historic region on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, comprising parts of modern Israel, Jordan, and Egypt. Also known as the Holy Land, it is a place of pilgrimage for several religions, including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
Semitic
family of languages (includes Hebrew, Arabic, Phonecian, etc.)
Canaan
where the Hebrews originated
Torah
the law of God as revealed to Moses and recorded in the first five books of the Hebrew scriptures
Abraham
the first of the great Biblical patriarchs, father of Isaac, and traditional founder of the ancient Hebrew nation: considered by Muslims an ancestor of the Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
monotheism
the belief in one god
covenant
an agreement
prophet
a person regarded as an inspired teacher or proclaimer of the will of God.
Moses
The great leader, lawgiver, and prophet of the ancient Israelites (Hebrews).
Ten Commandments
The Ten Commandments are laws or rules handed down to Moses by God on Mount Sinai.
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of Jews
Saul, David, Soloman
First 3 kinds of Israel
Solomon's Temple
The Ten Commandments are laws or rules handed down to Moses by God on Mount Sinai.
Israel
a country between Jordan and the Mediterranean Sea.
Judah
biblical son of Jacob by Leah, also the name of a tribe of Israel, from Hebrew Yehudah, from stem of y-d-h, literally "praised."
Levant
run away, typically leaving unpaid debts.
Isaac
the only son born to Abraham and his wife Sarah
Ishmael
a figure in the Tanakh and the Qur'an and was Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
Tanakh
an acronym of the first Hebrew letter of each of the Masoretic Text's three traditional subdivisions: Torah ("Teaching", also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi'im ("Prophets") and Ketuvim ("Writings")—hence TaNaKh.
Jerusalem
capital of Israel
Diaspora
Jews living outside Israel.
the dispersion of the Jews beyond Israel.
the dispersion of any people from their original homeland.
Hittites
a member of an ancient people who established an empire in Asia Minor and Syria that flourished from circa 1700 to circa 1200 BC.
Anatolia
in geography known as Asia Minor, also known as Turkey
Assyrians
the biggest empire (911-612BCE)
Nineveh
an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located in modern-day northern Iraq; it is on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Chaldeans
a member of an ancient people who lived in Chaldea circa 800 BC and ruled Babylonia 625-539 BC. They were renowned as astronomers and astrologers.
Cyrus the Great
a Persian king that crushed all rivals
Zarathustra(Zoroaster)/Zorastrianism
creator of an ancient Persian monotheistic religion
qanat
underground channels that were dug to get water (Persians)
satrap/satrapies
a provincial governor of the ancient Persian Empire
Achaemenid Persians
Persian Empire created by Cyrus
Persepolis
"city of Persians" capital of Achaemenid/Persian Empire
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