Bio 401 Midterm 1
Terms in this set (37)
Consumptive benefits (food, medicine and other benefits)
Non consumptive Benefits (recreational, spiritual, etc)
Service Value (Pollination, pest control, flood control)
Utilitarian Tradition tradition. Emphasizes sustained use of resources. 1st chief of the US Forest Service
Spiritual (scenic) tradition. Emphasizes non-consumptive use of resources.
Intrinsic Values. First president tor the society for conservation biology
Michael Soule's 4 postulates
1. The diversity of organisms is good
2. Ecological complexity is good
3. Evolution is good
4. Biological diversity has intrinsic value, irrespective of human use or benefit.
Alpha Biological Diversity
how many species occur in a specific area? A small, homogenous area, site or locality
Beta Biological Diversity
How does the species composition vary among areas? How much doe the components change as you move from one site to the next?
-High when sites have different species. Low when sites have same species
Gamma Biological Diversity
What is the cumulative total biodiversity across multiple areas with in a region? # spp in a state, country, continent.
-Lowest when both alpha and beta are low. Highest when both alpha and beta are high.
The study of biological diversity in geographical space and through time.
-Where is biodiversity
-When was it there
4 fundamental patterns of species richness
Latitude: species richness increases as latitude decreases (toward tropics)
Area: Larger areas = more species
Structural Complexity: Species richness increases with structural complexity of the environment
Isolation: Isolated areas have lower richness but higher endemism ( fewer species, but more uniqueness)
-As latitude decreases, the geographic ranges of individual species shrink steadily
-Species at higher latitudes tend to extend across greater geographic area. Species near the
Other explanations for higher biodiversity in the tropics
1. Cradle of Diversity - High speciation rate (higher temps increase mutation rates, higher productivity supports more individuals)
2. Museum of Diversity - low extinction rates
The complete range of species and biological communities as well as the genetic variation within species and all ecosystem processes
3 levels of biodiversity
1. Species diversity
2. Genetic diversity: genetic variation within species
3. Ecosystem diversity: The different biological communities and their associations with the chemicals and physical environment
The entire range of evolutionary and ecological adaptations of species to particular environments
Necessary for any species to maintain reproductive vitality, resistance to disease and the ability to adapt to changing conditions
- Increase in fitness, short-term resistance to environment downfalls and increase genetic drift.
What is a species?
1. A group of individuals that is morphologically, physiologically or biochemically distinct from other groups.
2. A group of individuals that can potentially breed among themselves in the wild and that do not breed with individuals of other groups
3. A group of individuals that share unique similarities of their DNA and hence their evolutionary past.
The process of new species formation.
Affect the organization of the community to a far greater degree than one would predict
Why is it necessary to protect keystone species?
Protecting keystone species and guilds is a priority for conservation efforts, because loss of a keystone species or guild will lead to loss of numerous other species as well.
Species Area Relationship
Things have value in themselves (intrinsic value)
Low frequency, high impact
Caveats to richness
Not all species have the same weight/value
Cradle of Diversity
Hot increases speciation, can support more individual (smaller latitude)
A species that has been so reduced in numbers that it no longer has a significant ecological impact on the biological community
fewer offspring at once
Parental care increased
Longer genstation period
Organisms with highly complex social lives
Living Dead Species
Simply defined as the number of different species represented
Measured that incorporated abundance. Simpson's Reciprocal Index (D)
Local extinction of a population, even though species may still exist elsewhere.
A biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is under threat from humans
Native or restricted to a certain country or area.
Museum of Diversity
Proposed rule that at least 50 and up to 500 reproductive individuals are needed to prevent the loss of genetic variability in a population; larger numbers are now considered necessary for wild populations.
Intrinsic factors that make a species vulnerable
-endemic to islands