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anthropology lab midterm
Terms in this set (69)
a statement of relationships that rests upon some firm basis;based on confirmed/corroborated hypotheses
a statement purposed to explain some phenomenon: framed to be testable/falsifiable
change in gene frequency within a population over time; caused by one or more of the evolutionary forces
four factors that cause evolution (evolutionary forces)
3. migration (gene flow)
4. genetic drift
four factors that cause gene frequencies to change in a population
steps of natural selection
homologous vs anologous
homologous is a characteristic that is similar in various groups of organisms because of their origin from a common ancestor possessing that characteristic
analogus is similar features in different taxonomic groups arising independently under similar evolutionary pressures
organisms that lack nucleus surrounding the genetic material; members of the kingdom Monroe
organisms who's genetic material is enclosed within a nuclear membrane within the cell
genes vs alleles
Gene: a segment of DNA coding for a specific polypeptide (or protein)
Allele: alternative form of specific gene; different alleles code for different forms of a trait
haploid cells that pass on genetic material to offspring at fertilization; sperm and egg cells
fertilized egg formed by a union of male or female gametes
the chromosomal complement of an individual; also an organized arrangement of an individual's chromosomes
meiosis vs mitosis
meiosis: the type of cell division occurring in the testes of males and ovaries of females whereby a specialized somatic(diploid) cell divided and produces daughter cells that develop into gametes
mitosis: the type of cell division whereby a somatic cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells
what makes up a nucleotide?
one phosphate molecule; one sugar molecule; and one base
the most basic unit of DNA and RNA
DNA vs RNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a Nucleic acid in the form of a long, linear molecule; the genetic material of all organisms
Ribonucleic acid: a nucleic acid in the form of a long, linear molecule composed of four kinds of bases and sugar and phosphate molecules
rNA vs tRNA
Ribosomal RNA: type of RNA that associates with various proteins to form ribosomes, which "read" the mRNA strand during protein synthasis
Transfer RNA: type of RNA whose function is to transport amino acids to their appropriate place along the mRNA strand during protein synthasis
heterozygous vs homozygous
heterozygous:the condone of having inherited two different alleles from at a particular locus
homozygous:the condition of having inherited the same two alleles from the parents at a specific locus
the number of offspring from a parental cross potentially expressing the dominant form trait relative to the number of expressing the recessive from
number of homozygous dominant to heterozygous to homozygous genotypes for a particular parental cross
what does the sagittal crest attach to
temporalis muscle, which is one of the main chewing muscles.
ratio that reflects the relative length of the upper arm versus the lower arm
ratio that reflects the relative length of the upper vs lower leg
(tibia/femur) x 100
relative proportions of the forelimbs and hindlimb, expressed as a percentage, of forelimb to hindlimb
(humerus + radius / femur + tibia)x 100
relationship between the morphology of a feature to the manner which the feature is used;
an anatomical feature together with the manner which it is used
ability to grasp
without teeth, no jaws to house them;
the first vertebrates
consider accessory organs to the digestive system
anterior dentition function
responsible for ingestion,the taking in of food;
teeth at the front of the dental arcade, canines and incisors
posterior dentition function
has the task of physically processing food;known as (cheek teeth)
first part of the digestion process,
processing food to make it easier for digestion
influences posterior behavior
using all four limbs in locomotion;a vast majority of primates are this
what can we learn from teeth?
age,sex,health,mating systems,behavioral patterns,evolutionary relationships, diet
where the upper and lower teeth oppose eachother
if a tooth sticks high above the gum-line;
present in herbivores such as deer,cows,horses
bunodont,found in humans
what determines the shape of the skull?
the size and shape of chewing muscles and the magnitude and direction of force generated when the skull is chewing
spacial relationship between the body mass of an individual and its environment
center of gravity
the point at which an objects mass is concentrated
base of support
area if the supporting body parts in contact with the substrate
spatial relationship between body mass of an individual and its environment
what does relative frequency mean
the number of times something occurs
for natural selection to occur traits must be
a heritable change in genetic material(DNA) is called
who coined the term "survival of the fittest"
two frequent causes of fluctuations due to random genetic drift are?
1.population bottle neck
2. founder effect
which evolutionary force is the only one to introduce new variation into the gene pool?
if we think of population as being made up of genes rather than individuals we are referring to a?
Features we have in common because of our shared ancestry are called?
organisms in which dna is within the nucleus are?
structures un the nucleus; composed of genetic material (DNA)wound around proteins are called?
what is a layered membrane, composed of phospholipids and protein molecules,that gives from to the cell and controls passage of material into and out of the cell called?
what is the constricted part of two attached chromatids called
what is the process of cell division in which somatic cells divide to produce more somatic cells?
the single set of 23 chromosomes contained with each gamete is refers to as the?
if my blood type is a what type of anti-bodies will i have in my blood serum?
if the antibodies attack the antigens this results in a clumping effect called ?
the type of blood that is a universal donor is
the type of blood that is a universal recipient is ?
what are the four bases of RNA
during the DNA extraction lab what was the purpose for the meat tenderizer?
break down the protein histone to allow DNA to unwind
what is the name for a triplet of mRNA base
what are the three main types of mutations that involve a single nucleotide?
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