D. emotional expressions can cause emotional experiences.
according to the facial feedback hypothesis: A. emotional experiences produce emotional expressions. B.facial expressions are symbols that provide others with information about an individual's emotional state. C.facial expressions are poor indicators of emotional experience. D. emotional expressions can cause emotional experiences.
Schacter and Singer believed that different emotional experiences are the result of the brain differentially interpreting the same pattern of general physiological arousal. True False
Which brain structure plays a critical role in the appraisal (evaluation) of emotions? amygdala hippocampus sensorimotor cortex cerebellum
Which emotion would be characterized as low arousal and negative valence? depressed/sad alarmed/agitated annoyed/upset serene/relaxed
Which theory of emotion states that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in both the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain? Klüver-Bucy theory Cannon-Bard theory two-factor theory James-Lange theory
control emotional expression.
Display rules describe the reasons we attempt to: pose for a photograph. interact with members of a group. control emotional expression. watch a public display of art.
Most people score little better than chance when they trying to detect lies. False True
often believe that one or more family members are imposters
People with Capgras syndrome: A. often believe that they are in direct communication with God. B. experience no emotion. C. usually believe that Earth is about to be attacked by aliens. D. often believe that one or more family members are imposters.
The smile is slightly lopsided
Which of the following characteristics would indicate to a trained observer that a person's smile is NOT sincere? The smile includes a crinkling of the corners of their eyes. The smile is slightly lopsided. The smile lasts for about 3 seconds. The smile engages the zygomatic major muscle.
Polygraphs can detect lies with accuracy greater than chance.
Which of the following statements about polygraph lie detection is TRUE? A.Polygraphs are rarely used by business and government agencies. B. Polygraphs can detect lies with accuracy greater than chance. C. Polygraphs have an extremely low false-positive error rate. D. Lie detectors are slightly worse than humans at detecting when people are lying.
may undermine intrinsic motivation.
A problem with using rewards to motivate behavior is that rewards: may undermine extrinsic motivation. have been shown to not alter motivation levels. may undermine intrinsic motivation. increase the behavior instead of decrease it.
female rats are interested in sex only during ovulation.
An important difference (but not the only difference) between female rats and human females is that: female rats are interested in sex only during ovulation. female rats are not interested in sex during ovulation. female rats do not have a menstrual cycle. human females are interested in sex only during ovulation.
inevitability of death.
Existential terror deals with the: inevitability of death. anxiety associated with sex. fear of marriage. phobic fear of breathing.
Prevention focus is to ________ as promotion focus is to ________. avoidance; approach unconscious; conscious long-term; short-term emotion; motivation
Research has suggested that testosterone may be the hormonal basis of the sex drive in both men and women. True False
Learning a second language during childhood broadly impairs cognitive development. True False
C.find certain aspects of human language difficult or impossible to learn, despite having normal intellectual abilities.
People with genetic dysphasia: A.are able to produce written language but unable to generate spoken language. B.acquire a language acquisition device only later in life. C.find certain aspects of human language difficult or impossible to learn, despite having normal intellectual abilities. D.are able to generate spoken language but unable to produce written language.
Quinn understands the meaning of more than 15 words.
Quinn just turned 1 year old and has a spoken vocabulary of 15 words. Which of the following is a TRUE statement about Quinn's language development? Quinn is behind the norm in her language development. Quinn violates many grammatical rules when she speaks. Quinn soon should start learning two to three words per day for the next four years. Quinn understands the meaning of more than 15 words.
in the left temporal cortex.
Wernicke's area is located: in the left frontal cortex. in the left temporal in the right frontal cortex. in the right temporal cortex.
Which of the following expressions is a phoneme? d dog the dog the dog runs
a conclusion follows from two statements that are
A syllogism is a form of reasoning in a conclusion follows from two statements that are a conclusion is implied but not directly stated. speculation takes precedence over facts. persuasive arguments sway a listener into believing a set of claims.
the sunk-cost fallacy.
Cindy has pumped over $850,000 into a small business that has consistently lost money every year it has been open. She reasons that she has to continue investing time and money in her business because she's "already put so much into it" (instead of selling the business and cutting her losses). Cindy's reasoning illustrates:
the law of demand. rational economic theory. the sunk-cost fallacy. the conjunction fallacy as applied to economics.
People using the representative heuristic often ignore ________ when making decisions. exemplars prototypes base rates previous experience
Rational choice theory accurately describes how humans make most of their daily decisions. True False
A.we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories of other instances of a category.
The exemplar theory of categorization holds that: A.categories are defined based on the average difference between a prototype and an exemplar. A.we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories of other instances of a category. B.items will not be considered for category membership unless they share a defining characteristic with the prototype. C.only the best examples of a category will be included for membership in that category.
the person's later happiness.
An intelligence test reliably predicts all the following EXCEPT: the number of years of education an individual will receive. academic performance. a person's later occupational status. the person's later happiness.
Fluid intelligence is generally assessed by tests of vocabulary, factual information, and so on. True False
Robert Sternberg argued that ________ intelligence best predicts job performance (for most jobs). fluid analytical practical emotional
B.identify children who needed remedial education.
he first intelligence test was developed in order to: A.identify children who were of average intelligence. B.identify children who needed remedial education. C.identify the brightest children, so that they could be given enriched instruction. D.free teachers from making subjective assessments of children's intelligence.
mental age/chronological age × 100.
The ratio IQ is calculated by the formula: mental age/chronological age × 100. chronological age/mental age × 100. mental age minus chronological age × 100. chronological age minus mental age × 100.
Men typically outscore women on tests that involve: rapid access to and the use of semantic information. fine motor skills. production and comprehension of complex prose. spatial memory.
Whites, Latinos, Blacks
Put the following racial groups in order of average intelligence score (of each group as a whole), from highest to lowest. Blacks, Whites, Latinos Latinos, Whites, Blacks Whites, Latinos, Blacks Whites, Blacks, Latinos
D. people probably will have higher intelligence scores than their grandparents.
The Flynn Effect predicts that: A. the intelligence of schoolchildren will decline over the summer. B.people who were breastfed as babies will have higher intelligence scores than people who were bottle fed. C.people who are anxious when taking a test will perform more poorly than when they are not anxious. D. people probably will have higher intelligence scores than their grandparents.
C.identical twins reared apart are more similar than fraternal twins reared together.
Which of the following most clearly demonstrates a genetic influence on intelligence? A.parents and biological children living together are more similar than parents and biological children living apart. B.unrelated siblings raised together are more similar than related siblings reared apart. C.identical twins reared apart are more similar than fraternal twins reared together. D.identical twins living together are more similar than identical twins living apart.
The heritability coefficient of intelligence is roughly .8. True False
in an orderly sequence, but the timing varies for different infants.
Motor skills in infancy emerge: in different sequences and at different times. in an orderly sequence and at the same time. in an orderly sequence, but the timing varies for different infants. at the same time for all babies, but their sequence varies for different infants.
develops in the sensorimotor stage.
Piaget believed that object permanence: develops in the first 2 months of life. is present at birth. develops in the sensorimotor stage. develops in the preoperational stage.
The ability to reason about abstract concepts is a defining feature of the concrete operational stage of development. False True
agent that can damage the process of
The word teratogen refers to the: agent that can damage the process of specific pattern of motor response triggered by a stimulus. cephalocaudal rule of development. substance that forms a fatty sheath around axons of brain cells.
Two groups that are much slower than others to acquire a theory of mind are ________ children and ________ children. deaf; mentally retarded deaf; blind autistic; antisocial autistic; deaf
Attachment is defined as a(n) ________ bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers. intellectual physical emotional maturational
Even young children show evidence of distress if they see that another child (or even an adult) is obviously suffering. False True
Morality is determined primarily by how a behavior affects the actor (the person committing the behavior) in the ________ stage of moral development. preconventional postconventional conventional unconventional
Toddler Jake shows severe signs of distress when his mother leaves. When she returns, he pushes her away. Jake is manifesting the characteristics of ________ attachment. ambivalent disorganized avoidant secure
Differences in attachment style are due entirely to biology.
Which of the following statements is FALSE? A.Children who were securely attached as infants tend to have higher quality social relationships than children who were not securely attached. B. Differences in attachment style are due entirely to biology. C. Differences in temperament usually are stable over time. D.Mothers of securely attached infants tend to be especially sensitive to their infants' needs.
extraversion vs. introversion.
Hans Eysenck's theory of personality identified two trait dimensions, emotional stability vs. instability and: extraversion vs. introversion. insecurity vs. security. impulsivity vs. control. independence vs. conformity.
People who have a highly reactive behavioral inhibition system tend to display neurotic tendencies. False True
give him or her a questionnaire.
To measure a person's personality, a psychologist most likely would: follow him or her around. observe him or her. ask friends about him or her. give him or her a questionnaire.
Thematic Apperception Test
What is the best-known projective personality test? Beck Depression Inventory Rorschach Inkblot Test Correct! Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Thematic Apperception Test
stable and unchanging.
William James argued that, by the age of 30, personality was: more conscientious and extraverted than in childhood. more variable than in childhood. better able to be modified by social norms. stable and unchanging.
a history of reinforcement.
B. F. Skinner, the famous behaviorist, would argue that your behavior right now is best explained by: a history of reinforcement. personal constructs. security-providing defense mechanisms. an internal or external locus of control.
Social cognitive research suggests that those who cheat on a test are more likely than others to lie or steal. True False
The repression of memories is associated with decreased activation of the: thalamus. hypothalamus. hippocampus. cerebellum.
self-narratives and personality traits.
he self-concept can be organized into: self-esteem and self-knowledge. the I and the Me. self-verification and self-esteem. self-narratives and personality traits.
Which theoretical approach focuses on how people make healthy choices that create personality? trait psychodynamic social cognitive humanistic