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A therapist's relationship to a client is impacted by the

interaction of the therapist's theoretical approach and the client's perspective.

To change a client's nail biting behavior, the client is instructed to paint their nails with a coating that tastes terrible. This is a(n) ____ method.

Aversive conditioning.

Token economy is a behavioral treatment approach based on ____ conditioning principles.


___ therapists focus on beliefs and attitudes that create and compound their clients' psychological problems.


Selective perception and a tendency to overgeneralize are ____as defined by Aaron Beck.

Cognitive errors or distortions.

One advantage to group therapy is that it is

more economical.

It is easiest to measure the outcomes of ____ goals in therapy.


Most antianxiety drugs belong to the chemical class known as


Prefrontal lobotomy, a failed ____ procedure, involved severing the nerve connections between the prefrontal lobes and the thalamus.


Cognitive therapy provides____that reduce the risk of recurrence of depression when treatment ends.

Coping skills.

The function of early asylums was to

provide a place to store the mentally ill.

Psychodynamic therapies assume that psychological disorders originate in

early childhood experiences and inner conflicts.

A goal of psychoanalysis was to strengthen the psychic structure that Freud called the


Client-centered therapy focuses on how childhood experiences create ____ which adversely affect the client's current functioning.

denial of self

In client-centered therapy, the therapist tries to set aside his or her own values and experiences and view the world through the client's

frame of reference.

Gestalt therapy differs from client-centered therapy in that Gestalt approaches are

more directive.

Behavior therapy applies the principles of ____ to modify behavior.


One of the most successful techniques for overcoming phobias is

systematic desensitization.

What are the four essentials of psychotherapy?

1. Systematic interaction (interaction between client and therapist)
2. Psychological principles (based on theory and previous research)
3. Thoughts, feelings, and behavior (where psychotherapy is aimed to changing)
4. Psychological disorders, adjustment problems, and personal growth (what people are seeking help in)

How has treatment of psychological problems changed through history?

The treatment of disorders has become more understanding. Disorders are now more understood and can be better treated.

According to psychodynamics therapies, what do psychological problems changed through history?


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