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OVERALL EXAM TWO NOTES ***** Review Notes, In class notes (Lecture Notes), Chapter 9- Magazines, News Values List, Define and Apply , Chapter 8- Newspapers, Chapter 7 Movies, Chapter 6- Television
Terms in this set (133)
Today with the advent of DVR, viewers are moving away from the trend of time shifting that affected advertisers in previous decades
The 1996 Telecommunications Act puts strict limits on the number of radio and TV stations any one company can own
What were three ways that Sylvester "Pat: Weaver forced advertisers to relingquish some of their power over tv programming
(Try to remember)
-A- Intoducing magazine shows like the Today Show
-B- Developing television specials, such as the TV version of Peter Pan
-C- Developing spot ads- shorter ads to be sold to ind. sponsors
Although some media critics disagree about the terminology, smartphones and other tech used to watch vids are referred to as?
What is the difference between a common carrier and an electronic publisher?
-A common carrier must offer at least part of its services on a first-come, first served basis
- An electronic publisher can pick and choose its channels
Thomas Edison's first attempt to create talking pics in the late 1800s was an immediate commercial success
The Motion Picture Patents Company was established in 1908 to share film tech with independent filmakers
The first sound movie, The Jazz Singer, was basically a silent film with a few spoken words and musical numbers
In America, most woman movie directors have first been successful actresses or scriptwriters
Movie Attendance began a sharp decline in the 1940s mostly because of tv
Movie Studios can earn more than double their US and Canadian box office receipts by distributing their films in foreigne markets
Penny press newspapers such as the New York Sun
Favored human-interest stories
The two publishers most associated with yellow journalism in the late 1800s were?
Pulitzer and Hearst
A story using this style typcially begins with who what when where,
- efficient way to organize a story
Consesus oriented papers
focus on local shit like schools and town gov
which of the followin is not true about large newspaper chains today
They are adding more people to their newsroom staffs
Advertising revenue, the lifeblood of newspaper operations
Has fallen dramatically in the last few years, with internet ad sales unable to fill the gap
Percentage of HUTS tuned into a show
(Not all TVs are turned on)
-One Hundred million tvs in US.
-On a typical Monday night, 50 million tvs on.
-25 million are watching Shrek
- 50% share
All televisions that exist
- One hundred million tvs in Us.
-Typical Friday night 50 million tvs on
- 25 million are watching shrek
- 25% RATJ G
1959 Is the year television
Really started selling
Prime Time Access Rule
1 of the 4 prime-time hours (7-11) must be open for local programming
In 1966 FCC asserted jurisdiction over cable with the...
Must Carry Lsw
Cable prohibited from importing signals into the top 100 markets
Must carry 3 local channels (gov, edu, public access)
Setting different levels of service for different fees
In technology and marketing
Used to control content on person television
Survey of reporters identified the following priorities...
Making sure that all information is correct
Ex. If you say someone dies, they better ACTUALLY be dead
Interest to Readers
-Covering topics that are the most wanted by people.
Ex. Pittsburgh wants to hear about the Steelers
Priority # 3
-Fairness to different views
- Make sure people will care about what you are getting at
Priority #4 Completenss
-Completely covering a topic, giving it a satisfiying ending
Priority #5 Usefulness to readers
-Make sure to story is actually relevant
Requirements for any newspaper to survive
- Disperse Population
- Literate Population
- Easy Method of Publication
1665 Oxford Gazette
Official "first" newspaper of the colonies
Lasted one issue
1704 Boston newsletter
Benjamin Harris, Postmaster
- First regularly published paper in the colonies
1721 Pennsylvania Gazette
Ben Franklin made first newspaper chain in Penn
First press in new world was in
Mexico, 1539, printing of relgious works
By 1900s Americans literacy reached?
The word magazine derives from the french term magasin meaning?
Storehouse- The earliest magazines were "storehouse" of writing and reports taken mostly from newspapers.
Today, the word magazine broadly refers to?
Collections of articles, stories, and advertisements appearing in non daily periodicals that are publish in smaller TABLOID style instead of the larger broadsheet newspaper style
First one was made in London in 1704 called?
(Hint- it is something REALLY basic)
The first colonial magazine appeared where and when? Also first person>
(Not as important knowledge)
1741, Philadelphia, fifty years after the first newspapers!
Also Andrew Bradford>
Saturday Evening Post (First successful general-interest magazine)
-it grew to incorporate news, poetry, essays, play review and more
- also first major one to appeal directly to women via its "Lady Friend category"
Magazines like Harper's married what with what to help make it a mass medium?
- Married visuals with the written word
(Drawings, woodcut illustrations, and eventually photos)
Postal Act of 1879 alongside advances in mass-production printing made large-circulation possible for magazines.
What is the Postal Act definition?
- Assigned magazines lower postage rates and put them on equal footing with newspapers deliver by mail, reducing distribution costs
The Ladies' Home JOurnal became so popular because?
(Highes circulation of any magazine in the country)
- Published more than the usual homemaking tips, it included also popular fiction, sheet music, and most important, the latest consumer ads.
Many magazines also engaged in one aspect of yellow journalism...
Crusading for social reform on behalf of the public good.
Investigative reporters who were willing to crawl thought society's muck to uncover a story
- most prominent after ww2 due to offering a wide variety f topics aimed at a broad national audience
A key aspect of the G-E Magazines is
-Photojournalism...what is the definition?
The use of photos to document the rhythms of daily life
The total number of people who come into contact with asingle copy of a magzine
Time, Reader's Digest, and Life, were the top magazines of their day.
What did they individually excel in?
Time- interpretive journalism
Reader's Digest- Printing condensed versions of other magazines
Life- Advancing photojournalsim
Tv Guide illustrated three important things about magazines from the 1950s onward
- General interest narrowed down to specialized interest
- The ever growing power of the supermarkets
- The ever growing power of television
Three reasons top magazines folded
and ushered in the new era of specialization
-sold magizines for less money then cost of production
-Advertising revenue pie had to be shared with tv and it was more expensive to have a page ad then a commercial
-Dramatic increases in postal rates
Magazines exclusively online
How did magazines, movies, and radio adapt when the new giant television took over?
Magazines specialized to smaller, loyal audiences
Movies focuesed on more "adult" themes tv couldn't touch
Radio developed formats for younger and older audiences
Enables an aspiring publisher-editor to write,design,lay out and print or post online a modest publication.
national magazines whose content is tailored to the interests of different geographic areas
college football= different football stars on cover
Contains a few pages of local advertisements
editions of magazines targeted at a particular group of consumers.
time did special editions for rich, zip code likely custumers
Those that automatically renew on a credit card account UNLESS subscribers request that the automatic renewal be stopped
Terms used to describe self-published magazines
Location/Geography- How close is it to home?
(Ex. Random plane crash doesn't matter, but if a Pittsburgher died, now it has a local twist)
A well-known person, place or event has a stronger news angle than something that the audience isn't familiar with.
Ex. A guest speaker visiting your local elementary school to take over story time doesn't resonate with many people ... unless that speaker is Johnny Depp.
Current news has more impact than something that happened yesterday or last week.
(Not new, not news)
-(More shallow) The more uniqe, different and interesting a news case story is
(Ex. Suicidal Deer!)
-If something is unusual, shocking or bizarre, the strangeness alone could make it newsworthy.
Readers are always interested in disagreements, arguments and rivalries. If an event has a conflict attached to it, many readers will be interested on that basis alone.
(Ex. A court case, presidential election, when people can pick a side to be on)
Terrible events like Katrina or Iraq War fatalities
Anything that goes horribly wrong is potentially newsworthy, such as an industrial explosion, a motorway pile-up, or a school shooting.
If the impact of an event may directly affect readers, they will want to know about it.
(Example: If you are living in the neighborhood on tv, you care unlike if it was a different neighborhood)
If a situation draws any sort of emotional reaction, has more subsistence then novelty.
Something to be "learned"
Like a story about someone's rights being violated
PS. Also consider
These stories can be "soft" kid-at-the-petting-zoo snapshots
First regularly published newspaper appeared in the american colonies, 1704. Who published them?
Zengers Case- 1735
- Made it legal to criticize public officials as long as info was true
Partisan Press- aka Political papers had what agenda?
- Push the plan of the particular political group that paid for the paper
Served business leaders who were interested in economic issues.
Industrial Rev made more literate customers and cheaper papers. Only a penny compared to more expensive 6 penny papers
Penny papers favor what type of stories?
Human interest stories
Associated Press- first major news wire service.
But what are wire services?
Relayed news stories/info around the country and the world using telegraph lines and later radio/television
-Sensational stories about crime celebrities scandals, usually overdramatic.
- Second, in-depth detective stories
News that hunt out and expose corruption
Ochs and the Times
- Focused more on big events and facts over sensationlism
Hearst and Pulitzer
- Yellow journalism champions
Distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns, reports strive to remain neutral.
-Begins with the most dramatic/newsworthy information
-Answers who, what, where, when (why/how too)
-Then narrowed the story down to the less important details
- aims to explain key issues or events and place them in a broader historical/social
Literary Journalism (New journalism)
adapted functional techniques such as descriptive details and settings to non fiction material
- carrying articles on local schools, social events and town gov shit
Conflict oriented journalism
- events, issues or experiences that deviate from social norms.
-Provided newspaper people like cartoonists with work
Joint-operating agreement JOA
Two papers keep separate news sections but share business and production operations
George Eastman in 1884 did a huge improvement over heavy metal and glass plates by:
Developing the first roll of film
Hannibal Goodwin improved WHAT and how did it improve things?
-Eastman's roll of film by using celluloid (a transparent and pliable material)
- it made it so a strip of film could produce a series of pictures
A small projection system, Viewers looked through a hole and saw images moving on a tiny plate.
-Edison, had longer legnths of filmstips and hinted at movies as a future mass medium
The shift to the mass medium stage for movies happened when?
Narrative film (movies that tell stories) were introduced
A cheap a movie theater with an admission fee of one nickel.
The motion Picture Patents Company (The Trust) made by Edison was for?
Dominating the movie business and reaping its profits
What is Vertical Integration?
- All levels of the movie business gave certain studios great power and eventually spawned a film industry that turned into an oligopoly
Assembly-line process for moviemaking, all workers were under contracts for major studios
Pooling talent over pooling patents was?
A more ingenious approach for movie studios aiming to dominate film production
In order to get a few popular starred movies, need to buy a lot of other movies too, eventually banned
These 8 companies formed an oligarchy
- Paramount, MGM, Warner Brothers, Twentieth Century Fox
- Columbia, Universal, and United Artists
The first sound movie, The Jazz Singer,
was basically a silent film with a few spoken words and musical numbers.
Product standardization vs product differentiation
What people like and are familiar with vs.
uniqueness (like CGI)
cinema verte (Think about Cloverfield)
track reality through a handheld camera, opposite of glamorous hollywood movies
independently produced movies
the hollywood ten trial
9 screenwriters and one director refused to discuss their memberships or to identify communist sympathizers.
The Paramount Decision
Focing studious to gradullay divest themselves of their theaters and stop monopolizing production, distribution and exhibition
After ww2 what was the biggest factor that contributed to the huge drop in movie attendance?
People were moving out to the suburbs
The Big 6 IMPORTANT ONE
DISNEY, WARNERS BROTHERS, paramount, 21st century fox, universal, columbia pictures
- The promotion and a sale of a movie through other stuff like toys
Like Star wars movie coming out and toys coming out
What was the first major crack in the network's mass audience dominance that started in the 70s?
Cable Tv developed like HBO and its popular shows (Sopranos)
Fees that cable providers like Comcast pay to local TV stations and the major networks each month for the right to carry their channels.
Three Major Historical Developments Shaped Television:
1- Technological innovations and patent wars
2- The wresting of content control from advertisers
3- The sociocultural impact of the infamous quiz-show scandals
Philo Farnsworth transmitted the first...
Electronic TV Picture
Tv Magazine format and the tv spectacular
- Moultiple segments like a magazinen
- Speicial called now and days,, special programs like musicals
Frauds put an end to sponsors creating tv content, and undermined the democratic promise of television, and finally emphasized the difference between high and low culture
- Three things the scandals did
CATV- Community antenna television (Cable)
Served very small amount of country, signals were blocked easily
- Eliminated over the air interference, and increased channel compacity
Cable provided narrowcasting
Specialized programming for diverse and fragmented groups
Film camera recorded a live tv show off a studio monitor- poor quality, only a handful survived
Computer, and Phones/tablets ect
DBS DIrect broadcast satellite services
- transmits a signal directly to small satellite dishes near or on customers homes.
Sketch comedies, Situation Comedy (sitcoms),
(SNL) (Friends) (Modern Family- focuses more on character development that on reestablishing order)
(Teleplays, scripts written for Television) aka Twilight Zone
Serialized TV Shows that run over a two day to two week period.
Episodic Series, chapter shows
self-contained stories with a recurring set of main characters who confront a problem, face a series of conflicts and find a solution- Big Bang Theory
open ended episoic shows story lines continue episode to episode, Daytime soap operas
Prime-Time Access Rule
1970, reduced the networks control of prime time programming from four to three hours. One hour for local news and public affairs programs.
Financial interest and syndication rules- fin-syn
FCC banned netowrks from taxing indepndent comapnies just for using the broadcast. those money hungry little shits...
Telecommunications aact of 1996
brings cable fully under the fedral rules that had long governed the telephhone, radio, and tv industries
Must carry rules
required all cable operators to assign channel toa nd acrry all local tv broadcasts on their systems
the nations top one hundred tv markets, requiring cable systems to provide and fund a tier of nonbraodcast channesl dedicated to local education, government and the public
Production company leases the show to a network or cable channel for a license fee that is actually lower than the cost of production (builds deficit but gain moneis through rerun syndication ;)
Leasing TV stations the exclusive right to air tv shows
Rating vs share
1000 out of 5000- 20 percent
1000 out of the 4000 tv sets ON- 25 percent
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