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170 terms

Water Soluble Vitamins Ch 10

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?
a. Many serve in the role of enzyme inhibitors
b. Structurally, many are found linked together
c. Several may be oxidized to yield 4 kcalories per gram
d. The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams
The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams
What is a precursor?
A substance that is used to synthesize another compound
What is the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?
The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except
a. they must be consumed daily.
b. toxic levels in the body are rarely found.
c. they are absorbed directly into the blood.
d. excesses are eliminated from the kidneys.
They must be consumed daily
All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins except
a. excesses are eliminated from the kidneys.
b. absorption is via the lymphatic circulation.
c. several of them require protein carriers for transport.
d. they can be stored in relatively large amounts in certain body tissues.
Excess are eliminated from the kidneys
Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the content of: a) folate, b) Vitamin A, c) Riboflavin, d) Vitamin B12
Vitamin A
Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk?
a. Thiamin
b. Vitamin A
c. Riboflavin
d. Vitamin B12
Vitamin A
What is the primary excretory route for water soluble vitamins?
Kidneys
When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?
Excreted primarily in the urine
What is the chief function of the B vitamins?
Coenzyme participation
Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?
a. B vitamins are a source of kilocalories
b. Absorption of carbohydrates and fats is decreased
c. Oxygen for energy metabolism cannot be transported to the cells
d. Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts
Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts
Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme?
a. Attaches to RNA to assist in the synthesis of an enzyme
b. Attaches to cell membranes to assist in uptake of an enzyme
c. Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place
d. Attaches to an enzyme, which allows for transport of the enzyme through the circulation
Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place
Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin: blood coagulation, Formation of red blood cells, Energy release from energy yielding nutrients, or formation of epithelial mucopolysaccharides?
Energy release from energy yielding nutrients
What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme
Assists in removal of one carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism
What is the coenzyme form of thiamin?
Thiamin Pyrophosphate
Beriberi results from a deficiency of
Thiamin
Which of the following is most likely to lead to Beriberi: High intakes of white rice, Low intakes of whole grains, High intakes of unrefined rice, low intakes of enriched grains?
High intakes of white rice
The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of
Thiamin
Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition: The coenzyme contains pyrosulfate, It is required for regeneration of folate, It is required for regeneration of niacin, It is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane
It is an integral part of your nerve cell membrane
Approximately what % of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?
20
All of the following are characteristic of thiamin nutrition except
a. severe deficiency may lead to edema.
b. severe deficiency may occur without edema.
c. recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents."
d. recommended intakes are based primarily on participation in enzyme activity
Recommended intakes are stated in equivalents
Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size: ham, squash, whole milk, whole grain breads?
Ham
Which of the following is a property of thiamin nutrition?
a. Participates in activation of prothrombin
b. Poor sources include seafood and cheeses
c. Significant amounts are found in leafy vegetables
d. Deficiency results in cheilosis and marked dermatitis
Poor choices include seafood and cheeses
How does the method of cooking affect thiamin stability?
a. Microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin
b. Prolonged heating of the food has little, if any, effect on the thiamin
c. Boiling the food tends to conserve thiamin by forming a stable, hydrated complex
d. Steaming the food can lead to substantial thiamin loss due to the high heat needed to form the steam
Microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin
Which of the following contains the highest concentration of thiamin in muscle tissue: Pig, fish, steer, chicken
Pig
Of the following, which is the richest food source of thiamin: lettuce, soy milk, cow milk, refined rice?
Soy milk
Riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of
hydrogen atoms
Which of the following vitamins is involved substantially in energy transformation reactions?
Riboflavin
What is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin?
Inflamed mouth membranes
Which food group ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin when expressed per kcalorie?
vegetables
What is ariboflavonosis?
The vitamin B2 deficiency disease
The signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as
Ariboflavonosis
Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in
dairy foods
Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to
UV light
What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?
Cardboard
The coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin?
Riboflavin
Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of the following vitamins: Biotin, Folate, Riboflavin, Pantothenic acid, More than one is correct
riboflavin
A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?
Riboflavin
Which of the following is a property of riboflavin in nutrition?
a. Stability to heat is good
b. Deficiency leads to beriberi
c. Requirements are proportional to body weight
d. Significant amounts are found in citrus products
Stability to heat is good
Which of the following is a property of niacin in nutrition?
a. It is susceptible to destruction in foods exposed to light
b. It participates primarily in reactions involving amino acids
c. It is soluble in both water and lipids depending upon its chemical form
d. It can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan
It can be synthesized into the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan
Which of the following properties is shared by niacin and riboflavin coenzymes?
a. Unstable to irradiation
b. Unstable to metal cooking utensils
c. Acceptance and transfer of hydrogen atoms
d. Acceptance and transfer of carboxyl groups
Acceptance and transfer of hydrogen atoms
When the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize the niacin?
Tryptophan
Which nutrient functions to prevent the appearance of a bilateral, symmetrical dermatitis, primarily on areas exposed to the sun?
Niacin
The vitamin deficiency pellagra means
tough skin
A low protein diet in which corn is a principle food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?
niacin
What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein?
pellagra
Which of the following is not among the common signs of pellagra?
a. Diarrhea
b. Dementia
c. Dermatitis
d. Desiccation
Desiccation
A general niacin deficiency is known to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the following organs/systems except
a. skin.
b. skeletal system.
c. nervous system.
d. gastrointestinal tract.
Skeletal system
Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize
a. FAD.
b. biotin.
c. niacin.
d. inositol.
Niacin
While researching your southern family history, you find that your grandmother had a sister who died fairly young. The symptoms leading up to her death included diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. Because the family led a poor, corn-farming existence, you suspect this relative died of
a. scurvy.
b. cancer.
c. pellagra.
d. beriberi.
pellagra
Which of the following substances is found in corn and contributes to the development of pellagra?
a. Avidin
b. Leucine
c. Phytates
d. Phenylalanine
Leucine
What term identifies the characteristic tingling sensations and reddening of the skin after ingesting a pharmacologic dose of nicotinic acid?
a. Niacin flush
b. NAD dermatitis
c. Niacin erythrema
d. Bilateral symmetrical dermatitis
Niacin flush
Which of the following overt side effect(s) is likely to appear after a person ingests a high quantity of nicotinic acid?
a. Constipation
b. Mental confusion
c. Painful, tingling, itching sensation
d. Hair loss, bloating, and photophobia
Painful, tingling, itching sensation
When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury and peptic ulcers?
a. Niacin
b. Thiamin
c. Vitamin B6
d. Vitamin B12
Niacin
Large doses of nicotinic acid are known to result in all of the following except
a. dilation of capillaries.
b. increased HDL cholesterol.
c. lowering of LDL cholesterol.
d. disappearance of learning disorders in children.
Disappearance of learning disorder in children
Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition?
a. Low doses may lead to kidney stones
b. High doses may lower blood cholesterol
c. Low doses may lead to heartburn and low blood pressure
d. High doses may elevate red blood cell count in mildly anemic individuals
High dose may lower blood cholesterol
Your friend Jane just returned from the doctor who diagnosed her with a specific vitamin B toxicity. However, she doesn't recall the name of the vitamin. Which of the following is the only possible culprit associated with toxicity symptoms?
a. Niacin
b. Biotin
c. Riboflavin
d. Vitamin B12
Niacin
What is the approximate niacin RDA for adults?
a. 15 niacin equivalents
b. 30 niacin equivalents
c. 15 tryptophan equivalents
d. 30 tryptophan equivalents
15 niacin equivelants
Among the following, which would be the best source of niacin equivalents?
a. Milk
b. Broccoli
c. Chicken
d. Strawberries
Chicken
Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consume 4 egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should not
a. be concerned as long as he consumes both the yolk and whites of the eggs.
b. follow the diet, since the avidin in the egg whites could bind to niacin and prevent its absorption.
c. follow the diet, since the avidin in the egg whites could bind to biotin and prevent its absorption.
d. be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease.
Be concerned, because when eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease
Features of biotin in nutrition include all of the following except
a. it functions in the breakdown of amino acids and fatty acids.
b. it functions as a carrier of carbon dioxide in energy metabolism.
c. a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large quantities of raw egg whites.
d. a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large amounts of thiamin and folic acid, which interfere with its absorption.
a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large amounts of thiamin and folic acid, which interfere with its absorption
Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings?
a. Biotin
b. Inositol
c. Lipoic acid
d. Orotic acid
Biotin
Which of the following foods contains a protein that decreases bioavailability of biotin?
a. Aged wine
b. Aged cheese
c. Raw egg whites
d. Raw cauliflower
Raw eggwhites
a
a
a
a
Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
a. Folate
b. Biotin
c. Cyanocobalamin
d. Pantothenic acid
Biotin
Biotin can be synthesized by
intestinal bacteria
What is the adult Adequate Intake for biotin?
a. 3 µg
b. 30 µg
c. 3 mg
d. 30 mg
30 micrograms
What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?
a. Biotin
b. Folate
c. Riboflavin
d. Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
What is the AI for pantothenic acid for adults?
5 mg
Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food?
a. Biotin
b. Niacin
c. Vitamin B12
d. Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
Forms of vitamin B6 include all of the following except
a. pyridoxal.
b. pyridoxine.
c. pyrimidine.
d. pyridoxamine.
pyrimidine
Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue?
a. Biotin
b. Folate
c. Vitamin B6
d. Pantothenic acid
Vitamin B6
The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include
a. confusion and depression.
b. muscle cramps and stiffness.
c. profound fatigue and anemia.
d. hyperactivity and shortness of breath.
confusion and depression
What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism?
a. Biotin
b. Vitamin A
c. Vitamin B6
d. Riboflavin
Vitamin B6
Which of the following is not a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition?
a. It is stored in muscle tissue
b. It is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure
c. It can lead to irreversible nerve damage when taken in large doses
d. It functions, in part, in the synthesis of glycine and glutamic acid
It is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure
All of the following are features of vitamin B6 metabolism except
a. a deficiency or toxicity leads to depression.
b. its destruction and excretion are promoted by alcohol intake.
c. it functions primarily as the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate.
d. it enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of l mg/g of dietary protein.
It enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of 1 mg/g of dietary protein
What is the tolerable UL intake for Vitamin B6?
100 mg
A common drug for the treatment of tuberculosis is known to markedly interfere in the metabolism of vitamin
B6
Irreversible nerve damage has been reported in people taking large doses of
B6
Which of the following statements reflects our knowledge of water-soluble vitamin toxicity?
a. Toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be severe and irreversible
b. Toxicity symptoms for vitamin C include constipation and hyperactivity
c. Toxicities of the B vitamins occur almost as often from foods as from supplements
d. Toxicity of niacin has been reported in body builders taking large amounts of amino acid supplements
Toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be severe and irreversible
In what major way does alcohol intake affect vitamin B6 metabolism?
a. It reduces acetaldehyde formation
b. It increases fecal excretion of the vitamin
c. It dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme
d. It interferes with synthesis of the PLP coenzyme
It dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme
What is the RDA for Vitamin B6?
1.3 mg
Which food group is richest in vitamin B6 in a per-kcaloric basis?
vegetables
Which of the following is an essential nutrient for human beings?
a. Folate
b. Inositol
c. Methoxatin
d. Lipoic acid
Folate
Pteroylglutamic acid is also known as
folate
All of the following are properties of folate in nutrition except
a. it is needed for proper functioning of vitamin B12.
b. it functions primarily in the transfer of amino groups.
c. the coenzyme of folate requires vitamin B12 to function properly.
d. it requires enzymes on the intestinal mucosa to enhance its absorption from most foods.
It functions primarily in the transfer of amino groups
Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamin B12 and folate?
a. Both are required for nucleic acid synthesis
b. Both require intrinsic factors for their release from food proteins
c. Both are found in significant amounts in green leafy vegetables
d. Both are considered problem nutrients for strict vegetarians
Both are required for nucleic acid synthesis
Which vitamin goes through enterohepatic circulation?
Folate
Which vitamin is usually found in a form that is bound to one or more glutamic acid molecules in food?
folate
A person with a disorder that limits absorption of bile is at increased risk for deficiency of
folate
What is the most likely explanation for the impaired functioning of the GI tract resulting from folate deficiency?
a. Since folate is required for bile synthesis, folate deficiency results in insufficient bile production, thereby promoting fat malabsorption and diarrhea
b. Since folate functions, in large part, in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning
c. The anemia of folate deficiency results in decreased oxygen supply to body tissues, with the intestines being particularly affected because of their high metabolic activity
d. Since folate functions, in part, in the synthesis of pancreatic digestive enzymes, a deficiency leads to decreased enzymatic capacity in the intestines, thereby resulting in malabsorption
Since folate functions in large part in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning
Which of the following is not a feature of folate nutrition?
a. Most food folate is bound to a string of amino acids
b. Folate is actively secreted back into the GI tract with bile
c. Food folate must be hydrolyzed by intestinal cell enzymes prior to absorption
d. Folate must be methylated by homocysteine prior to crossing the brush border membrane
Folate must be methylated by homocysteine prior to crossing the brush border membrane
What % of dietary folate is bioavailable?
50
The % of bioavailability of a folate supplement taken on an empty stomach is
100
How many dietary folate equivalents are provided by 100 µg of a folate supplement?
170
What fraction of women capable of becoming pregnant ingest the RDA for folate?
1/2
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
folate
Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect?
a. Scurvy
b. Beriberi
c. Pellagra
d. Spina bifida
Spina bifida
Which of the following is a feature of folate nutrition?
a. The coenzyme form is FAD
b. Dairy foods are a poor source of folate except for goat's milk
c. Insufficient folate intake results in deficiency of homocysteine
d. Synthetic folate is 70% more available than naturally occurring food folate
Synthetic folate is 70% more available than naturally occurring folate
By law, what amount of folate (µg) must be added to 100 g of food products such as breads, flour, and rice?
140
Nicole is pregnant and is trying to monitor her folate intake. She is eating foods high in folate as well as taking folate supplements, and she is having a hard time determining how many dietary folate equivalents she is consuming. Below is a list of her daily intake with respect to folate:
½ cup of cooked lentils (180 μg food folate)
½ cup of fresh orange juice (60 μg food folate)
folate supplement (200 μg)
580
Because of adverse interactions with other vitamins, a safe daily folate intake is up to
1000 micrograms
A deficiency of which vitamin results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood
folate
The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of
folate
What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells?
Folate
Which of the following substances is known to adversely affect folate utilization?
a. Insulin
b. Calcium supplements
c. Regular use of antacids
d. Vitamin B12 supplements
Regular use of antacids
Which of the following is representative of folate availability in foods?
a. Good sources are dairy products and meats
b. Poor sources are fruit juices and vegetable juices
c. Much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation
d. Only about 10% of the amount in foods is bioavailable
Much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation
Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status?
a. Sedentary lifestyle
b. Some anticancer drugs
c. Excess protein intake
d. Insufficient fiber intake
some anticancer drugs
Physiological stresses such as blood loss, burns, measles, and cancer are known particularly to increase the risk of deficiency for
folate
Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate?
a. Hemolysis
b. Hypoxemia
c. Hemolytic anemia
d. Macrocytic anemia
Macrocytic anemia
Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed
a. soy milk.
b. goat's milk.
c. chicken liver.
d. infant formula.
Goat's milk
Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs?
Folate
What is the RDA for folate for a woman weighing 132 pounds?
400 μg
What is the adult RDA for folate (µg)?
400
Which food group is highest in folate?
Vegetables (green and leafy)
Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?
a. Bile
b. Lipase
c. Intrinsic factor
d. Carboxypeptidase
Intrinsic factor
What is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin B12 absorption?
a. It catalyzes release of the vitamin from its protein-bound form
b. It attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines
c. It acts as a storage protein for the vitamin within the intestinal epithelial cells
d. It acts as a cofactor for mucosal enzymes involved in absorption of the vitamin
It attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines
All of the following are required for efficient dietary absorption of vitamin B12 except
a. pepsin.
b. intrinsic factor.
c. hydrochloric acid.
d. mucosal cobalaminase.
Mucosal cobalaminase
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?
Inadequate absorption
Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of
Vitamin B12
The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supply of
Vitamin B12
The absorption of which of the following vitamins is most affected by the disorder atrophic gastritis?
Vitamin B12
Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?
a. It is efficiently recycled by the body
b. It is necessary for protection from pinpoint hemorrhages
c. It requires attachment to fatty acids for transport in the circulation
d. It is absorbed from the stomach with the aid of a special binding protein
It is efficiently recycled by the body
A similar type of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of either
a. riboflavin or niacin.
b. vitamin B12 or folate.
c. thiamin or riboflavin.
d. vitamin B6 or vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 or Folate
Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by inadequate absorption?
a. Injection of cobalamin
b. Topical administration of liver extract
c. Oral supplements of B-vitamin complex
d. A diet high in liver and green, leafy vegetables
Injection of Cobalamin
If a person refrained from ingesting any of the water-soluble vitamins, deficiency symptoms would appear last for
Vitamin B12
Normally, the body's storage and re-utilization of vitamin B12 prevents a primary or secondary deficiency from occurring until after about
3 years
In a person who loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12, approximately what period of time could elapse before deficiency signs develop?
3 years
Pernicious anemia results from a combination of lack of intrinsic factor and
lack of hydrochloric acid
Which of the following is not known to be a risk factor for development of atrophic gastritis?
a. Age over 50 yrs
b. Iron deficiency
c. Helicobacter pylori infection
d. Avoidance of leafy vegetables
Avoidance of leafy vegetables
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 bioavailability?
a. Synthetic B12 in supplement form is highly utilizable
b. Fermented soy products are optimal sources of the vitamin
c. Yeast consumed by vegans is a good source of the vitamin
d. Sea algae such as spirulina contain about 50% available vitamin B12
Synthetic B12 in supplement form is highly utilizable
Among the following water-soluble vitamins, a secondary deficiency would most likely be seen for
a. biotin.
b. thiamin.
c. vitamin C.
d. vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12
Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency?
a. Vegetarian diets inhibit absorption of the vitamin
b. Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin
c. The fiber content of vegetarian diets causes decreased storage by the liver
d. The fiber content of vegetarian diets causes increased excretion of the vitamin
Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin
Of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12?
a. Pecans
b. Hot dog
c. Cauliflower
d. Whole-grain bread
Hot dog
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin B12?
a. Toxicity symptoms are serious and irreversible
b. Units in food are expressed as cobalamin equivalents
c. It is inactivated when the food is heated in a microwave
d. Bioavailable amounts are found in fermented soy products
It is inactivated when the food is heated in a microwave
The RDA for Vitamin B12 is
2.4 micrograms
Which of the following vitamins has an RDA?
a. Biotin
b. Choline
c. Cobalamin
d. Pantothenic acid
Cobalamin
Which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body?
a. Carnitine
b. Orotic acid
c. Methoxantin
d. Pangamic acid
Carnitine
Which of the following is not known to be required in the diet of human beings?
a. Folic acid
b. Lipoic acid
c. Ascorbic acid
d. Pantothenic acid
Lipoic Acid
Which of the following is classified as a conditionally essential nutrient?
a. PABA
b. Choline
c. Inositol
d. Ubiquinone
Choline
Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings?
a. Choline
b. Inositol
c. Lipoic acid
d. Pangamic acid
Choline
Which of the following is not known to be a vitamin for human beings?
a. Cobalamin
b. Ubiquinone
c. Pyridoxine
d. Pantothenic acid
Ubiquinone
Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?
a. Bones
b. Tongue
c. Eyesight
d. Hair and nails
Tongue
Which of the following is an overt sign of a possible B vitamin deficiency?
a. Anemia
b. Smooth tongue
c. Abnormal liver function
d. Abnormal heart function
Smooth tongue
Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamins B6, B12, C and folate?
a. Required for glycolysis
b. Consumption prevents anemia
c. Required in microgram quantities
d. Found in citrus products and legumes
Consumption prevents anemia
What is a free radical?
A molecule with at least one unpaired electron
Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?
a. Antiviral agent
b. Antifungal agent
c. Anticancer agent
d. Antioxidant agent
Antioxidant
In what capacity does vitamin C function?
a. Coenzyme for energy release
b. Cofactor in collagen formation
c. Cofactor with calcium in blood coagulation
d. Coenzyme in the formation of red blood cells
Cofactor in collagen formation
The protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is
collagen
Which of the following represents the results of well-controlled studies of vitamin C supplementation on the resistance to, and recovery from, colds?
a. There was a reduction in the duration of colds by 50% on the average
b. There was only a minor effect on reducing the number and severity of colds
c. There was a significant reduction in the duration of colds in people who consumed at least one gram a day
d. There was a significant reduction in the number of colds only in people who consumed more than three grams per day
There was a significant reduction in the duration of colds in people who consumed ast least 1 gram daily
Why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold?
a. They deactivate histamine
b. They reduce episodes of diarrhea
c. They destroy intestinal pathogens
d. They alter hypothalamic control of body temperature
They deactivate histamine
Which of the following vitamins is known to deactivate histamine, a substance that causes nasal congestion?
a. Niacin
b. Vitamin E
c. Vitamin C
d. Vitamin B12
Vitamin C
What is the minimum daily amount of ascorbic acid that will prevent the appearance of scorbutic symptoms in human beings?
a. 10 mg
b. 30 mg
c. 50 mg
d. 60 mg
10 mg
How much vitamin C is needed daily to raise blood ascorbic acid concentrations to a maximum?
a. 10 mg
b. 75 mg
c. 125 mg
d. 200 mg
200 mg
Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency?
a. Bleeding gums
b. Pernicious anemia
c. Appearance of a cold
d. Hysteria and depression
Bleeding gums
What is the adult RDA for vitamin C?
75-90
How much extra vitamin C do smokers require?
35 mg
Which of the following symptoms is indicative of a deficiency of vitamin C?
a. Hair loss
b. Muscle spasms
c. Bilateral symmetrical dermatitis
d. Subcutaneous pinpoint hemorrhages
Subcutaneous pinpoint hemorrhages
People with the condition known as iron overload may be adversely affected from taking supplements of
a. niacin.
b. retinol.
c. cobalamin.
d. ascorbic acid.
Ascorbic acid
Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C?
a. Milk group
b. Meat group
c. Fruit group
d. Bread-cereal group
Fruit group
What term is used to describe the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently shows that you have mononucleosis when in reality you do not?
a. True positive
b. True negative
c. False positive
d. False negative
False positive
What term describes the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently indicates that you do not have an infection when in reality you do?
a. True positive
b. True negative
c. False positive
d. False negative
False negative
ohn is looking to increase his dietary sources of vitamin C. However, he expresses a strong dislike for all citrus fruits. Which of the following shopping lists would you recommend?
a. Liver, yogurt, milk
b. Brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries
c. Banana, peanut butter, canned tuna fish
d. Whole grains, pork, fortified corn flakes
Brussel Sprouts, Broccoli, strawberries
Which of these meals is lowest in vitamin C?
a. Roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea
b. Hot dog, cabbage, french fries, and milk
c. Roast beef, broccoli, noodles, and coffee
d. Spaghetti with tomato sauce, meatball, garlic bread, and red wine
Roast Beef, Carrots, tea, noodles
All of the following are consequences of ingesting excess vitamin C supplements except
a. they frequently cause diarrhea.
b. they appear safe at levels up to 2000 mg/day.
c. they enhance the action of anticlotting medications.
d. they interfere with laboratory urine tests for the diagnosis of diabetes.
They enhance the action of anticlotting medication
A vitamin supplement labeled as "high potency" contains an amount that is
a. 50% of the Daily Value.
b. equal to the UL.
c. up to 200% of the Daily Value.
d. 100% or more of the Daily Value.
100% + of the daily value
Approximately what percentage of the U.S. population takes multinutrient supplements regularly?
33
The known dangers of taking vitamin supplements include all of the following except
a. vitamin toxicity.
b. the taker may ignore warning signs of a disease.
c. the taker may feel a false sense of security and consume a poor diet.
d. pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection.
Pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection
All of the following are known to occur from a mild iron overdose except
a. nausea.
b. GI distress.
c. black tongue.
d. black diarrhea.
black tongue