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Chemistry Chapter 3
Terms in this set (15)
Explain Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. What paradox is at least partially unexplained by this principle?
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle states that the position and velocity of an electron can't be observed at the same time. This doesn't necessarily explain the wave-particle duality of electrons.
What is a trajectory? What kind of information do you need to predict the trajectory of a particle?
A trajectory is an object's path through air. To determine it, you would need to know the object's position, velocity, and any forces acting upon it.
Why does the uncertainty principle make it impossible to predict a trajectory for the electron?
It states that we can't simultaneously measure an electron's velocity and position at the same time.
Newton's laws of motion are deterministic. Explain this statement.
In Newton's Laws, the present determines the future. Deterministic means simply that the present determines the future.
An electron behaves in ways that are at least partially indeterminate. Explain this statement.
For an electron, you can repeat the same experiment over and over again and get different results.
What is a probability distribution map?
It's a map that shows the probability of an electron being X distance away from the nucleus.
For each solution to the Schrödinger equation, which quantity can be precisely specified: the electron's energy or its position? Explain.
It's energy but idk why
What is a quantum-mechanical orbital?
It is the placement at a discrete distance from the nucleus where the electrons can exist.
What is the Schrödinger equation? What is a wave function? How is a wave function related to an orbital?
The Schrodinger equation is H(wave function) = E(wave function). A wave function describes the probability of a particle's quantum state in terms of it's position, momentum, time, and/or spin
What are the possible values of the principal quantum number n? What does the principal quantum number determine?
The possible values for n are integers 1-7. This quantum number determines the overall size and energy of the orbital.
What are the possible values of the angular momentum quantum number l? What does the angular momentum quantum number determine?
The possible values of l for any given n is less than or equal to n-1.
What are the possible values of the magnetic quantum number ml? What does the magnetic quantum number determine?
The values of this for any given l is the range of -l to +l. It determines the orientation of the orbital in space.
Explain the difference between a plot showing the probability density for an orbital and one showing the radial distribution function.
Probability Density shows that there is a finite, non-zero probability of finding electrons at the nucleus. Radial distribution shows that there is a zero probability of finding electrons at the nucleus because it takes into account the volume of shell enclosed.
List the four different sublevels. Given that only a maximum of two electrons can occupy an orbital, determine the maximum number of electrons that can exist in each sublevel
Why are atoms usually portrayed as spheres when most orbitals are not spherically shaped?
The "shape" of an atom is made by superimposing all of its orbitals
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