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an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind; Edward Bradford Titchener and self-reflective introspection.


a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function--how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish; William James.


the view that psychology should (1) be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes; most research psychologist agree with (1) but not (2); John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner.

humanistic psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth; Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).


the science of behavior and mental processes.

nature-nurture issue

the controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behavior; interaction of the both.

natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations; Charles Darwin.

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

counseling psychology

branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and in achieving greater well-being.

clinical psychology

branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.


branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; physicians who offer psychological therapy and drug treatments.

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