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Chapter 8

STUDY
PLAY
Memory is best defined at
the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information
The process of getting information in to memory is called
encoding
The process of retrieval refers to
getting information our of memory storage
After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his _______ memory
short-term
Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is know as
automatic processing
While reading a novel at a rate of nearly 500 words per minute, Megan effortlessly understands almost every word. This ability highlights the importance of
automatic processing
Effortful processing can occur only with
conscious attention
The tendency for distributed study to yield better long-term retention than massed study is known as
the spacing effect
On the telephone, Dominic rattles off a list of 10 grocery items from Kyoto to bring home form the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Kyoto attempts to write down the items. She is most likely to forget the items
in the middle of the list
The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called
semantic encoding
Ebbinghaus found that memorizing familiar words required much less effort than memorizing nonsense syllables. This best illustrates the advantage of
encoding meaning
One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during infancy they were unable to verbally label their experiences. This best illustrates that the formation of long-term memories often requires
semantic encoding
The organization of information into meaningful units is called
chunking
The use of acronyms to improve one's memory of unfamiliar material best illustrates the value of
chunking
Tim, a third grader, learns the sentence "George eats old gray rats and paints houses yellow" to help him remember the spelling of geography. Tim is using
a mnemonic device
By presenting research participants with three rows of three letters each for only a fraction of a second, Sperling demonstrated that people have __________ memory
iconic
Iconic memory refers to
photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only a few tenths of a second
Sounds and words that are not immediately attended to can still be recalled a couple of seconds later because our ________ memory.
echoic
Peterson and Peterson asked people to count aloud backward after they were presented with three consonants. This study finds that _____ memories will quickly disappear without active processing and rehearsal.
short-term
The human capacity for storing long-term memories is
essentially unlimited
Exceptionally clear memories of emotionally significant events are called
mood-congruent memories
Unlike implicit memories, explicit memories are processed by the
hippocampus
Damage to the hippocampus would most likely interfere with a person's ability to learn
the names of the 50 states in the United States
The discovery that words heard underwater are later better recalled underwater than on land best illustrates the value of
retrieval cues
Rehearsal is to encoding as retrieval cues are to
relearning
Information learned while a person is _______ is best recalled when that person is _________
drunk; drunk
Austin can't remember Jack Smith's name because he wasn't paying attention when jack was formally introduced. Austin's poor memory is best explained in terms of
coding failure
using nonsense syllables to study memory, Ebbing hays found that
the most rapid memory loss for new information occurs shortly after it is learned
Harry Bahrick observed that three years after people completed a spanish course, they had forgotten much of the vocabulary they had learned. This finding indicates that information is lost while it is
in storage
Two people learned nonsense syllables and then tried to recall them after up to eight hours has elapsed. Jenkins and Dallenbach observed that forgetting occurred least rapidly when the individuals spent their time
sleeping
Learning a new ATM password may black the recall of a familiar old password. This illustrates
retroactive interference
Philippe has just completed medical school. In reflecting on his years of formal education, he is able to recall the names of all his instructors except the fifth grade teach who flunked him. According to Freud, his forgetting illustrates
repression
The misinformation effect refers to the
incorporation of misleading information into one's memory of an event
When asked misleading questions after observing an accident, eyewitnesses often reconstruct their initial memories of the event. This best illustrates
the misinformation effect
Researchers asked university students to imagine certain childhood evens, including a false event such as breaking a window with their hand. They discovered that
people can easily distinguish between their own true and false memories
Those who are eager to use hypnosis to facilitate eyewitness recollections of the details of a crime should first be warned of the dangers of
the misinformation effect
Adults who have trouble remembering incidences of childhood sexual abuse have often been led by therapists to believe that their memory difficulties are due to
repression
Memory experts who express skepticism regarding reports of repressed and recovered memories emphasize that
most extremely traumatic life experiences are never encoded into long-term memory
Participants in one experiment were given false accounts of their being lost in a shipping mall during their childhood. Many of these participants later falsely recalled vivid details of such an experience. This experiment best illustrated
the misinformation effect
Mentally recreating the mood that accompanied your original learning of course material is an effective way to activate
retrieval cues
Answering practice test questions about text material you have studied is a useful strategy for
facilitating the development of implicit memory