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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Chapter 13 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (20)
1. Commercial Revolution
- marked an important step in the transition of Europe from the local economies of the Middle Ages to the formation of a truly global economy. The commercial revolution included global trade, mercantilism, and the emergence of free enterprise.
- European kings hoped to increase their power through the system of mercantilism. Mercantilists acted to remove trade barriers within their country. They also taught that wealth and power were based on amassing gold and silver, which could be used to pay soldiers to defend the state. Mercantilists thought the total wealth in the world was limited, so that it had to be gained through war or trade
3. Free Enterprise
- (also known as capitalism) Under this system, business owners risked their capital (money) in a business in order to make profits.
4. Thomas Hobbes
- An Englishman who wrote that man was not naturally good. Without a strong central authority to keep order, life would be "nasty, brutish and short." Society would break down into a "war of every man against every man." Hobbes said kings were justified in seizing absolute power because only they could act impartially to maintain order in society.
5. Divine Right
- Monarchs like James I in England and Louis XIV in France justified their power on the basis of divine right. According to this theory, a king was God's deputy on Earth, and royal commands expressed God's wishes.
- Refers to a monarch's total control over his subjects. Louis XIV (1638-1715) of France provided a model for other absolute monarchs. His will was law. Any critic who challenged the king was punished.
7. Limited Monarchy
- A monarchy in which subjects enjoyed basic rights and power was shared between the king and Parliament (legislature).
8. English Bill of Rights
- In 1689, William and Mary (English rulers) agreed to the Bill of Rights, establishing Parliament's supremacy over the king and other rights. William and Mary agreed that they would neither collect new taxes nor raise an army without obtaining Parliament's consent.
9. John Locke
- He challenged both the divine right theory and the view of Hobbes. Locke believed that governments obtain their power from the people they govern, not from God. According to Locke, individuals are free in the "state of nature," but jointed together to form a community to protect themselves. The community then hands power over to a government in a "social contract." The main purpose of government was therefore to protect life, liberty,, and property. Locke defended a people's right to revolt when the government abused its power.
10. William Blackstone
- (1723-1780) an English judge, summarized English law in his Commentaries on the Laws of England. The book explained the English common law - a system of laws based on a judge following the precedents of other courts. Blackstone defined the rights of individuals in English law, as well as property rights that could not be violated, even by the king. He also explained England's "mixed monarchy" where power was shared by the king and Parliament.
11. Scientific Revolution
- Included the work of Copernicus, Galileo, Harvey, and other scientists. The Scientific Revolution began during the Renaissance and continued through the 17th and 18th centuries. It rejected traditional authority and church teachings in favor of the direct observation of nature.
12. Scientific Method
- The revolution in science was based on the new scientific method - in which people observed nature, made hypotheses (educated guesses) about relationships, and then tested their hypotheses through experiments.
13. Sir Iraac Newton
- The most influential thinker of the Scientific Revolution. His book Principia Mathematica connected the speed of falling objects on Earth to the movements of planets. Newton reduced all these patterns to a single formula: the law of gravity.
14. Robert Boyle
- Irish chemist (1627-1691) who is sometimes known as the "Father of Chemistry." Boyle conducted experiments on gases at different temperatures and pressures. He found gas pressure increased as the volume of the gas decreased. He also distinguished mixtures from compounds.
- Refers to an important movement in 18th century European thought. Enlightenment thinkers believed that by applying reason and scientific laws, people would be better able to understand both nature and one another. They applied a new scientific method to society and its problems. At the core of this idea was a questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and morals. In particular, they questioned the divine right of kings, the hereditary privileges of the nobility, and the power of the Catholic Church.
16. Declaration of Independence
- Enlightenment ideas were applied by Thomas Jefferson in the American Declaration of Independence. The Declaration recognized the existence of natural rights such as the right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It stated that the purpose of government was to protect these rights. This demonstrated the strong influence of Locke on colonial thinking.
- (1694-1778) Poked fun at traditional authority in society, government, and the church. His views on religious toleration and intellectual freedom influenced the leaders of the American and French Revolutions.
18. Baron de Montesquieu
- (1689-1755) Argued for a separation of powers in government as a check against tyranny. His book, The Spirit of Laws, encouraged the development of a system of checks and balances later used in the U.S. Constitution.
19. Adam Smith
- (1723-1790) Described capitalism in his book, The Wealth of Nations. Smith explained how competition and the division of labor helped to guide a free-market economic system based on self-interest. He argued that government should follow a laissez-faire, or "hands off," policy towards the economy.
20. Enlightened Deposition
- Were absolute monarchs who tried to use Enlightenment ideas to reform their societies "from above.' They often came from countries without a strong middle class. They felt it was up to the ruler to introduce positive changes. They instituted religious tolerance, established scientific academies', and promoted social reform, but they rarely supported a greater sharing of political power. Catherine the Great of Russia, Frederick the Great of Prussia, and Joseph II of Austria were examples of enlightened despots.
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