Dance Appreciation: Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Body(what)
body parts, body shape/design, balance/off balance, locomotor and non-locomotor movement, full body, isolation of parts, integration, distortion, distal initiation (moving from the "ends" of the body like fingertips, toes, top of head), proximal initiation (moving from the joints, such as shoulders, hips), core to distal, distal to core...
space(where)
direction, level, size, pathway, focus, planes of motion (sagittal, frontal and transverse - see below*), location, personal space and shared space, positive and negative space, width, depth, height of space
Time (when)
speed/tempo, rhythm, duration, stillness, momentum (accelerating/decelerating), syncopation (varying of accents)
Energy (how)
amount of weight, flow, percussive, sustained, active/passive, strong/gentle, amount of force, bound, released, dynamic.
Relationship (with whom/ what)
Solo (relationship with space, to sound, to self, to prop and to audience), duet, trio, group. Some words related to relationship: leading, following, mirroring, shadowing, flocking, meeting, splitting, passing, beside, over, under, around, near, and far.
Planes of motion
ways of dividing the body to represent the dynamic planes of motion that the human body is capable of moving through
Sagital
forward or backward, the "doing plane", divides body into left and right halves
Frontal
side to side, "presentational plane", divides body into front and back halves
Transverse
horizontal plane, divides body into upper and lower halves
Culture
socially transmitted, integrated behavior patterns, knowledge, arts, beliefs, material traits, shared attitudes, values, practices, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought characteristic of a community or population.
Context
the set of circumstances in which a particular event occurs.
Tradition
a mode of thought or behavior followed by a people from generation to generation.
Value
a principle, standard, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable.
Innovation
the introduction of a new idea, method or device.
Phrase
Several movements and/or motifs linked together. Similar to a grammatical sentence.
Motif
a single movement or short phrase that is used as a source or spark for development
Manipulation
when a movement motif is changed, altered and developed through the application of other ideas such as changing its size, speed, or force.
Canon
In music, a two- or more part composition in which each part is identical to the other but each voice enters at different times. Rounds such as "Row, Row, Row Your Boat" are a type of canon. In dance, a single theme or movement sequence that is executed by two or more dancers at different times.
Locomotion
movements that travel through space (walk, run, gallop, skip, roll).
Non-locomoter movements
movements that do not travel in space (bend, twist, reach).
Pattern
is a planned arrangement of stresses and accents in repetition
Pathway
is the path on the floor along which a dancer or group of dancers moves
Symmetry
a pattern that is alike on both sides of an axis, design tends to be restful and satisfying to watch.
Asymmetry
a pattern that is not alike on both sides, tends to be intriguing, disturbing and exciting to watch.
Distortion
is the exaggeration of forcing of certain elements, always pulls the work away from an exact imitation and toward a particular point of view, physicality or emotion, is most often used for aesthetic, not practical purposes.
Virtuosity
is the surmounting of great technical difficulties, whether of execution or of composition. The artist tries to surprise, distinguish, and reveal their talents and unique abilities. The dangerous and unusual have an attraction for both performer and audience.
Dynamics
(sometimes used interchangeably with the term "energy") - is the expression of varying strengths and efforts employed in motion.
Levels
are commonly referred to low, middle and high. Low refers to movement and action that takes place low to the floor, middle is standing yet not upright and high refers to movements that are elevated or aerial in space.
Climax
is the "high point" or culmination of energy and expression in a dance work. The climax can be located anywhere in the dance; at the beginning, end, or both ends of the work. The work can start with a climax, build to a climax or climax and continue to a conclusion.
Positive and negative space
positive space is the space that dancers occupy with their bodies. Negative space Negative space is the space which surrounds a body or bodies. The use of negative space can have a dramatic impact on the mood and tone of the dance.
Isolation
Moving individual parts of the body (body centers) independently of others.
Kinesthesia
awareness of sensation, position, weight, tension and movement.
Kinesthetic memory
The ability to physically remember and repeat body actions or forms.
Musicality
The ability of a dancer to move with skill and nuance to music. Also, independent of music, the ability of a dancer to move with skill when all movement is given specific physical and dynamic expression in and of itself and in relationship to other movements.
Compositional structures
are frameworks or structures used to determine the overall structure of a dance.
Form
the complete shape or map of a work. In art that is based on time (dance, music, and literature), it is the line or track that leads from the beginning through the middle or development to a conclusion. In art that is based on space (dance, architecture, and painting), it is the relation of the physical parts to the space in which they function and their interrelation.
AB
is a thematic composition structure that provides contrast and variety. The A part represents one phrase of specified length and B represents a different phrase of specified length. The A and B phrases are made to complement and enhance each other, but deal with two sides of the same theme or two different themes
ABA
is an extension of the AB structure. After the B phrase, the piece returns to an altered version of the A phrase. The second A phrase can be manipulated by changing the tempo, size, rhythm, or quality of the movement or by fragmenting, repeating, or changing the order of the sequence
Rondo
ABACAD - A is the basic theme that keeps returning, alternating with variations.
Natural Forms
progressions occurring in nature including the life cycle, universal patterns such as seasons. Choreographers can turn these ideas into images by creating their own forms or adapting AB forms.
Narrative
following the form of an existing narrative text or original text
Collage
consisting of bits and pieces of assorted materials that are brought together as a whole. Juxtaposition is utilized yet all parts can be simultaneously apprehended and the material creates a unified form. Collage is used to show the interplay of diverse elements and ingredients and show new relationships between material
Repetition
Repeat exactly the same
Retrograde
Perform it backward. Start at the end and follow it back through space-like a movie run backward
Inversion
upside-down ( ┌ becomes └ ) or lateral ( ┌ becomes ┐ ).
Size
condense/expand
Tempo
fast/slow/stop.
Rhythm
Vary the rhythm but not the tempo. The variety and pattern of the beats should be altered, not the speed or the length of time it takes to accomplish
Quality
Vary the movement quality. Example: Try the same movement quivery, drifting, with erratic tension, etc.
Instrumentation
Perform the movement with a different body part; try several different parts of the body. Let another performer do it. Have a whole group do it.
Force
Vary the amount of force you use in producing the movement.
Background
Change the design of the rest of the body from its original position and repeat the motif. Let the rest of the body be doing something while the motif is going on. Sit instead of stand. Try perhaps twisting all the rest of you into a knot while still performing the regular motif. Add another person (maybe having them wrap around you). Add to or change the set, the lighting.
Staging
Perform it at a different place on the stage and/or with a different facing to the audience, sideways or on a diagonal
Embellishment (ornamentation)
The movement itself can have the embellishment (e.g., little 1oops or jigjags occur- ring along the path of the movement); or a part of the body can be embellished as it is involved in the movement (as the arm moves, wiggle the fingers or make a fist); or try embellishing both the body and the path of movement at the same time
Additive/ Incorporative
While doing the original motif, simultaneously execute any kind of jump, turn, or locomotor pattern (triplet, run, slide). Incorporative: Make the original motif into a jump, turn, or locomotor pattern. Although this can be tough or impossib1e with some motifs, approach it with a sense of "how can x [original motif] be jumped, turned, moved from place to place?" A series of chasses would be an example of the way an arc could be realized as a locomotor pattern.
Fragmentation
Use only a part of the motif, any part. Use it as an entity in itself. Use it to attend to a detail, a part worth isolating that might otherwise be overlooked. Or use several parts of it, but not the whole thing-such as the beginning third, a tiny piece halfway through, and the very, very end.
Combination
Combine any of the above so that they happen at the same time. This lets you combine affinities (faster with smaller) or antagonists (faster with larger) for choreographic interest and technical challenge. Fragmentation is particularly effective when combined with others. You may combine three or four manipulations at the same time (fragmentation/inversion/embellishment, or inversion/retrograde/ slower/different background). Variety and complexity grows as you combine more and more manipulations.
Visual
a picture in the mind. Ex: visualize your body as a star
Kinesthetic
Body feelings. What the body can feel. Ex: Imagine the feeling of your feet on a hot sidewalk.
Direct
similar to a mental rehearsal of an action or seeing specific movements in your mind. Ex: Visualize yourself climbing stairs or performing a dance movement like a leap.
Indirect
A metaphor for the movement. Exists outside of your body. Ex: Move like a dry leaf as it floats to the ground.
Specific
An image directed to a particular part of the body. Ex: Lift one arm and focus on the feeling of heaviness in that arm, as if it is a block of wood.
Global
General images that include the entire body. Ex: Imagine your whole body as transparent.
Entrance
When the performer becomes visible to the audience
Exit
When the performer leaves the view of the audience.
Off stage
Where performers wait for their entrance and where much of the technical magic of production happens.
On stage
Where the performers perform
Stage Left
The left side of the stage from the performer's perspective, when gazing at the audience.
Stage right
The right side of the stage from the performer's perspective, when gazing at the audience.
Upstage
Towards the back wall of the stage, the back half of the stage.
Downstage
Towards the audience, the front half of the stage.
Dances of imitation
involve the replication of battles, the taking on of characteristics and movements of animals, embodying the essence of weather, and mimesis of the movements of other living things
Medicine dances
are performed to both prevent illness and to restore health
Commemorative dances
are created and performed to celebrate important events such as rites of initiation, births, deaths, marriage, and significant dates and events in the cultural calendar.
Dances for spiritual connections
offer the performers and viewers an opportunity to reach a spiritual plane and connection with gods not available on a daily basis. These dances are expressions of gratitude towards deities, requests for benevolence from the gods, and also dances to create order, beauty, and harmony to please the gods.3
Yoruba
the specific culture, religion and language of currently 25 million people who live in Nigeria, intimately connected to the earth, which represents in many ways the realm in which their spiritual deities and ancestors reside
Bharata Natyam
female hindu dance, a highly rhythmic form requiring years of training, uses hand movements (mudras) and facial expressions to tell stories, while the feet beat out accompaniment with the assistance of ankle bells. Comparing one's relation to god as to that of a lover, and describing the bliss of union with god in terms of union with a beloved
Mudras
an extensive system of hand designs and shapes that communicate ideas, spiritual deities, and emotions to the audience used in Bharata Natyam
Shiva
god of creation and destruction, often referred to and pictured as Lord of the Dance
Krishna
god of love and harmony
Candomble
Candomble is a religion found primarily in Brazil that is strongly influenced by religions from Africa, which came to Brazil by means of the slave trade from the 16th to 19th century. Found in small numbers in Uruguay, Argentina, Venezuela, Columbia, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain
Oriashas
Candomble practice surrender to the point of possession to these spirits. Followers also conduct various sacrifices to spirits and call on spirits to heal them as well.
Samba
Developed in Brazil during the 19th century, this dance is considered the dance of celebration and joy at Carnival celebrations in Rio. Dance is a mixture of Latin and African rhythms, and the maxixe. Includes ballroom, partner and solo style dances. This dance has a distinctive, dramatic climax...it concludes with dancers throwing back their heads and extending their arms out to the sides.
Capoeira
a true Afro-Brazilian art, fusing two (or more) cultures in response the colonization of Brazil. The martial arts aesthetic and technique came from enslaved peoples brought from the Angola area of Africa (now known as the Republic of Angola), whereas the blending of fighting and defensive moves and rhythmic dance developed in Brazil under specific political, cultural and social pressures. Arrived in the US in the 1950s and gained popularity in 1970s with the popularity of break-dancing
roda de capoeira
is a circle or boundary where two players stay focused on one another while pivoting around during the game and the motion is generally circular
ginga
is the basic step of rocking, swaying laterally, back and forth in rhythm, from which the capoeiristas add sweeps and kicks
berimbau
main instrument accompanying capoeira, a percussive instrument of African origin, designed with a low strung wire that is attached to a gourd as a sounding board
Kathakali
is a story-drama, which includes dance, song and action. Originally developed within the royal courts of southwestern India, and supported with the patronage of the courts and aristocrats, performances are based on themes from epic poems from Hindu mythology including, Mahabharata and Ramayana. Dance is performed by men only and all female roles are also performed by men
Astronomic
Egyptian dance ritual, erformed by priests around a central altar representing the sun, the dancers made signs of the zodiac with their hands while turning rhythmically from east to west, representing the courses of the planets. After each turn, the dancers froze in place to represent the immobility of planet earth.
Whirling Dervishes
Muslim male, incorporated dance into worship. believe that by whirling continuously for long periods of time, they will achieve a higher spiritual plane of existence and directly experience the presence of Allah.
Australian Aboriginal Dance
initiation rituals, include, for men, coming to sexual maturity and becoming accredited as hunters and warriors. For women, significant landmarks in life's journey include menarche, marriage, childbirth and menopause. These rituals were designed to change the way the initiates felt about themselves.
Baroque Court
King Louis XIV of France was an enthusiastic dancer and had a great influence on the development of a new form of dance. He was known as "The Sun King" because of a ballet role he performed at the age of 14, where he represented the rising sun. During Louis' reign, two kinds of dance developed: social dances for the ballroom and theatrical dances for court entertainments. The two forms shared similar steps and styles, and both were practiced by the nobility.
Bugaku of Japan
traditional dance of the Japanese Imperial court, developed from dance dramas practiced as part of the Buddhist religion in China, Korea, India and Southeast Asia. The dance was originally developed as private spectacles, a secret and sacred presentation for the emperor and his court. The dance utilizes geometric patterns, symmetrical floor patterns, and prioritizes control and composure of the performers. It is performed only by men and it is this gender specificity combined with the above characteristics that reinforces the ideologies of those in power at court: restraint, composure, and the maintenance of power by men.
Asante Court of Ghana
In the court, there are members called courtiers, who have access to wealth and leisure but are expected to uphold the traditions and customs of the court at all times. They also have a responsibility to dance well and the responsibility to pass on dances to next generation. To dance well, in this culture, is to "stay cool", both literally and figuratively.
Bedoyo of Java (Indonesia)
a dance performed at the Muslim courts and is attributed to an indigenous ocean deity. incorporates Hindu myth and a quiet aesthetic from Buddhism. All dances are performed to proclaim the glory of the ruler, to affirm the court's ancestral ties to a divine source of power and to teach about the principles of Javanese life, which are composure and presentation. performed by nine identically dressed women, each representing an aspect of an individual or idea.