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Rad Pro in Med Radiography: Chpt 2
Terms in this set (69)
Xrays are a type of ?
What does ionizing radiation mean?
when xrays pass through matter, they produce positively and negatively charged particles
Consequences of Ionization in Human Cells (6)
Creation of unstable atoms
Production of free electrons
Production of low-energy x-ray photons
Creation of reactive free radicals capable of producing substances poisonous to the cell
Creation of new biologic molecules detrimental to the living cell
Injury to the cell that may manifest itself as abnormal function of loss of function
effective measures employed by radiation workers to safeguard patients, personnel, and the general public from unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation
damage to living tissue of animals and humans exposed to ionizing radiation
Two main risks of exposure to radiation:
radiogenic malignancy or genetic defects
degree to which the diagnostic study accurately reveals the presence of absence of disease in the patient
ALARA is synonymous with
Optimization for radiation protection
Cardinal Rules of Radiation Protection
Employers Responsibility to:
implement and maintain effective radiation safe program to execute ALARA
Who is directly responsible for execution, enforcement and management of the ALARA program
Radiation Safety Office
Radiation Risks include
It is correct to tell patients:
For normal diagnostic exams there are no existing data of any unsafe effects from the x-rays used in the exa
BERT is based on the annual US population exposure which is how much?
300 mrem/year or 3mSv/yr
Where does most of the background radiation dose come from?
radioactivity in our bodies
What does the TRACE acronym stand for?
Tools for Radiation Awareness and Community Education Program
Two phases of the TRACE program
1. Formulation new policies and procedures to promote radiation safety and the implementation of patient and community education
2. Technologic enhancements
Standardized Dose Reporting
individual patient dose needs to be documented for on every fluoroscopy, CT and interventional radiologic procedure
energy in transit from one location to another
anything that occupies space and has mass. atoms and molecules are the fundamental building blocks of matter
scientific unit for mass
the ability to do work, measured in joules.
in radiology it is measures in eV (electron volts)
Various forms of energy
type of energy in x-rays, radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, gamma rays and xrays are all types of electromagnetic energy
the smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic energy
speed of light
3 x 10^8 m/s or 186,000 miles per second
electromagnetic radiation appears to have a dual nature called wave-particle duality. can travel through space in the form of a wave but can interact with matter as a particle of energy.
how many types of electromagnetic energies are there?
Which has higher energy and frequency, but shorter wavelengths?
Gamma rays and xray. Microwaves and radio waves are on the other side of the spectrum.
Xrays and Gamma rays are unique because they have the ability to?
X-rays are produced in diagnostic imaging systems and come from interactions with?
Gamma rays come from?
inside the nucleus of a radioactive atom
What is the only difference between x-rays and gamma rays?
What kind of waves do electromagnetic waves move in?
high energy ultraviolet radiation
process by which a neutral atom gains or loses an electron
describes a quantity of radiation and applies only to ionizing radiation
Ionizing radiation can be classified into two categories
1. electromagnetic radiation
2. particulate radiation
x-rays and gamma rays
alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons and protons
naturally occurring process whereby an unstable atomic nucleus relieves its instability by various types of nuclear spontaneous emissions
radioactive atoms that have the same # of protons. They are changes into a difference atomic species by disintegration of the nucleus accompanied by the emission of ionizing radiation
also called alpha rays
helium nucleus that contains two protons and two neutrons
have a large mass
carries two units of positive electric charge, twice that of an electron
only emitted from the nuclei of heave elements
alpha particles possess how much kinetic energy?
4-7 MeV of kinetic energy. This energy of the alpha particle is quickly lost and has a very short range in matter. A piece of paper could function as a shield against alpha particles
Is alpha radiation harmless?
from an external source: nearly harmless because the energy is deposited into the superficial layers of the skin.
from an internal source, it can intensely radiate the local tissue
also called beta rays
light particles with an atomic mass number of 0 and carry one unit of negative or positive charge.
the only difference between electrons and negative beta particles is their origin.
positive beta particles are positrons. They have the same mass as electrons and are considered to be anti-matter.
Can ionize several hundred atoms per centimeter and have a longer range.
Less harmful than alpha particles
positive charged components of an atom
proton therapy: a beam of protons that is delivered to targeted precise doses of radiation to patients using a cyclotron or synchrotron.
electrically neutral components of an atom.
neutron beam therapy uses neutrons to destroy very dense tumors.
Equivalent Dose (EqD)
radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposes when a person receives exposure from various types of ionizing radiation.
This quantity tries to numerically specify the differences in biologic harm that are produced by different types of radiation. EqD enables the calculation of effective dose (EfD)
takes into account the dose for all types of radiation (EgD) to various irradiated organs or tissues in the human body (skin gonadal tissue, thyroid, etc). Takes into account the total body dose that would give an equivalent biologic response or chance of cancer.
Unit for Equivalent Dose (EqD)
SI: the Sievert
Traditional System: rem
how occupational and nonoccupational dose limits are expressed in EfD and stated in sieverts
Occupational Dose Max
Sources of radiation:
1. Natural environmental radiations (3.0 mSv)
2. Man-made radiation (3.3 mSv)
Total annual EqD:
Natural sources of radiation:
internally deposited radionuclides
nuclear fuel for generation of power
atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing
nuclear power plant accidents
nuclear power plant accidents as a consequence of natural disasters
results from deposits of uranium-238, thorium-232, radium-226, and other radionuclides in the earth-
contributes to .3 mSv of average annual radiation EqD from natural radiation for the US
the largest common exposure of humans to natural background radiation. contributes to 2.0 mSv of average annual radiation. Emits alpha particles, which are not penetrating, therefore only contributes to radiation doses to the lung.
extraterrestrial radiation from the sun and solar system.
Intensity of cosmic radiation increases with altitude and latitude. about 0.3 mSv per year.
endogenous radiation: internally deposited radionuclides that exist in small quantities in the body.
0.3 mSv per year
Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Material:
Contributes to about 0.1 mSv to average radiation EqD for the US
600 mSv a year
10 hour flights equals 1 chest X-ray
Nuclear Fuel for generation of power
0.1 mSv or 10mrem
Atmospheric Fallout from nuclear weapons
dose that may ultimately be delivered from a given intake of a radionuclide.
Average amount of background radiation per year
average amount of Manmade radiation per year?
Total dose of radiation per year is?
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