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Social Psychology: Aggression
Terms in this set (25)
Any form of behavior that is intended to harm another person, oneself, or an object.
Intentional use of harmful behavior to achieve some other goal (war, gang violence, organized crime, football).
Triggered by anger, the goal of which is to cause injury or death to the victim and is often impulsive and irrational (assault).
The blocking of goal-directed behavior.
Frustration produces anger and aggressive responses when blocking of goal attainment is intentional.
The redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target.
Frustration arises from a gap between expectations/aspirations and attainments. Social comparisons can raise expectations.
Personality traits consistently related to aggression
Irritability (tendency to explode at slight provocation),
rumination (tendency to retain feelings of anger following provocation), and
emotional susceptibility (tendency to experience feelings of discomfort and inadequacy).
Influences of aggression through learned behavior
Parent's harsh punishment of aggressive behavior has been shown to increase later aggression. Direct reinforcement from intimidation and athletic success. Learning through observation of models.
Albert Bandura: Bobo Doll Experiments
Children who observed the aggressive adult displayed much more aggressive behavior.
Media violence influence on Agression
Children act more aggressively in their play behavior, choose more aggressive solutions to social problems, and behave more aggressively toward strangers, classmates, and friends.
Violent song lyrics influence on Aggression
Causes people to be more accepting of antisocial behavior and creates an emotional mindset that makes aggressive responses more likely.
Video game violence influence on Aggression
Increases in aggressive thoughts, emotions, behavior, and physiological arousal while decreasing prosocial behavior.
Alcohol influence on Aggression
Weakens restraints against aggression. Adversely affects more controlled, effortful thinking (disinhibition). Leaves more automatic, impulsive responses relatively unaffected. Interferes with ability to interpret ambiguous stimuli, leading to higher potential for aggression.
Heat influence on Aggression
Can either increase hostile thoughts and feelings through discomfort or lower aggression-related crimes by keeping people inside when extreme.
Arousal influence on Aggression
Heightens emotions and energizes whatever urges we may be having at the moment.
Weapons influence on Aggression
Priming of hostile thoughts, punitive judgments.
More than 100,000 women in the US every year. 20%-25% in college reported experiencing. Acquaintances account for 85% on college campuses.
Risk factors for Rape
Having friends that are sexually aggressive, witnessing or experiencing violence as a child, alcohol or drug use, and being exposed to social norms, shared beliefs, that support sexual violence.
The rape myth
Deep down women enjoy forcible sex. Violent pornography increases beliefs by making men less likely to empathize and more likely to blame victims.
Similarities in gender
Verbal aggression and expressing anger toward members of the other gender.
A form of social manipulation in which the aggressor attempts to harm another person without face-to-face contact. Gossiping, spreading false stories, telling others not to associate with a person, and revealing secrets are examples. More common in females.
Why females are indirectly aggressive
More socially acceptable than physical aggression, more effective in intimate social settings, they have less physical strength, and have earlier social maturation.
Testosterone influence on aggression
High levels associated with dominance and antisocial behavior, likelihood of having committed violent crime, being a trial lawyer, actor, or NFL football player, more dominant and confident, not being married, getting divorced, less friendliness and smiling.
Hormones that stimulate or control development and maintenance of male characteristics and neurological development.
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