33 terms

U.S History chapter 3 test- Creating the Constitution

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James Madison
• 4th president
-Father of our Constitution
-Virginia Plan
Benjamin Franklin
-greatly mourned throughout Philadelphia
Alexander Hamilton
-secretary of treasury for George Washington
Edmund Randolph
-First Attorney General
-Anti-Federalist
William Paterson
-Proposed the New Jersey Plan
Roger Sherman
-Proposed the Connecticut Compromise/ Great Compromise
-Signed the Declaration of Independence
George Washington
• 1st president of the United States
Thomas Jefferson
• 3rd president
• 2nd Vice President
Federalists
-Supporters of the Constitution
-Constitution would create a federal government
-Believed power should be divided between central government and state government
Anti-Federalists
-Not against federalism
-Accepted the need for a state government
-Believed that the Constitution failed to protect their basic rights, however they offered no alternate conclusion
Powers of the central government under the Articles of Confederation
-Enumerated powers
-Reserved powers
-Concurrent powers
Enumerated Powers
-Powers listed in the Constitution as belonging to the federal government
-power to coin money/ regulate interstate and foreign trade/ maintain armed forces
Reserved Powers
-Powers retained by the states
-power to establish schools/ set marriage and divorce laws/ regulate trade within state
Concurrent Powers
-Powers shared by the state and federal government
-power to raise taxes/ borrow money/ provide public warfare
United States congress- a bicameral legislature
-The Virginia Plan
-bicameral-> two houses
Articles of Confederation- Success:
-Bill of Rights
-Constitution describes the powers that the federal government has and its limits to those powers
-Checks and Balances/ Separation of Powers/ Individuals Rights (amendments)
Three-Fifths Compromise
-Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention
-Three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
The Constitution is "the supreme law of the land"
-No law is above the supreme law
The Virginia Plan
-Creation of the vice bicameral national legislature
-Formed by James Madison
-recommended scraping the articles of confederation
-to create a new national government to make laws/ raise money through taxes
The "Great Compromise" (Connecticut Compromise)
-proposed by Roger Sherman
-House of Representatives-> representation would be based on population
-The Senate-> the states would have equal representation
-Voters would elect representatives/ state legislature would choose the senators
Delegates to the Constitutional Convention- Rhode Island
- 55 delegates attended the convention
- Thirty-nine where once members of the Congress
- 8 had signed the Declaration of Independence
- Influential nationalists attended (Benjamin Franklin/ George Washington/ John Adams/ James Madison)
- Every state except Rhode Island sent a delegate
Constitutional Convention task:
- To balance the rights of the states with the need for a stronger national government
Authors of the Federalists Papers
-James Madison
-Alexander Hamilton
-John Jay
Federalism
- A system that divided power between the federal government and state government
The Federalists Papers-> Significance?
-Federalists arguments for ratification were summarised in the paper
-Explained the new framework of a government created by the Constitution, and why it was needed
Activities of the Anti-Federalists
-Believed that the new Constitution should contain the Bill of Rights
Examples of separation of powers
-checked and balances
-separation of powers
Checks and Balances
-Prevents any single group or institution form becoming too powerful
-Federal government divided into three groups:
legislature, executive, judicial
Separation of Powers
-Government branches can check/ limit the power of other branches
-Prevents one branch from becoming too powerful from another
Shays Rebellion
-Angry farmers in Massachusetts rebelled/ closed down several courthouses
-Daniel Shays-> leader of rebellion
-showed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
-The congress had no power to tax nor could it get involved in individual state matters
The weakness in the Articles of Confederation
-one vote for each state, regardless of size
-congress powerless to impose and collect taxes on duties
-no national court system to interpret laws
-A 9 out of 13 majority required to pass laws
-"firm league of friendship"
The New Jersey Plan
-proposed unicameral legislature in which every state would continue to have an equal vote
Rights for you-4th amendment
-Protection against unreasonable searches and seizures
-Must have a probable cause to search and/or search warrant