Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
AP bio chpt 4 outline
Terms in this set (37)
Which of the following statements correctly describes the normal tonicity conditions for typical plant and animal cells?
A) The animal cell is in a hypotonic solution, and the plant cell is in an isotonic solution.
B) The animal cell is in an isotonic solution, and the plant cell is in a hypertonic solution.
C) The animal cell is in a hypertonic solution, and the plant cell is in an isotonic solution.
D) The animal cell is in an isotonic solution, and the plant cell is in a hypotonic solution.
E) The animal cell is in a hypertonic solution, and the plant cell is in a hypotonic solution.
The animal cell is an isotonic and the plant is hypotonic
In which of the following would there be the greatest need for osmoregulation?
A) an animal connective tissue cell bathed in isotonic body fluid
B) cells of a tidepool animal such as an anemone
C) a red blood cell surrounded by plasma
D) a lymphocyte before it has been taken back into lymph fluid
E) a plant being grown hydroponically (in a watery mixture of designated nutrients)
cells of a tidepool
When a plant cell, such as one from a peony stem, is submerged in a very hypotonic solution, what is likely to occur?
A) The cell will burst.
B) The cell membrane will lyse.
C) Plasmolysis will shrink the interior.
D) The cell will become flaccid.
E) The cell will become turgid.
Which of the following membrane activities require energy from ATP hydrolysis?
A) facilitated diffusion of chloride ions across the membrane through a chloride channel
B) movement of water into a cell
C) Na⁺ ions moving out of a mammalian cell bathed in physiological saline
D) movement of glucose molecules into a bacterial cell from a medium containing a higher concentration of glucose than inside the cell
E) movement of carbon dioxide out of a paramecium
The phosphate transport system in bacteria imports phosphate into the cell even when the concentration of phosphate outside the cell is much lower than the cytoplasmic phosphate concentration. Phosphate import depends on a pH gradient across the membrane-more acidic outside the cell than inside the cell. Phosphate transport is an example of
A) passive diffusion.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) active transport.
Glucose diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers. The cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large quantities of glucose from the glucose-rich food into their glucose-poor cytoplasm. Using this information, which transport mechanism is most probably functioning in the intestinal cells?
A) simple diffusion
C) active transport pumps
E) facilitated diffusion
What is the voltage across a membrane called?
In most cells, there are electrochemical gradients of many ions across the plasma membrane even though there are usually only one or two electrogenic pumps present in the membrane. The gradients of the other ions are most likely accounted for by
A) cotransport proteins.
B) ion channels.
C) carrier proteins.
D) passive diffusion across the plasma membrane.
E) cellular metabolic reactions that create or destroy ions.
The sodium-potassium pump is called an electrogenic pump because it
A) pumps equal quantities of Na⁺ and K⁺ across the membrane.
B) pumps hydrogen ions out of the cell.
C) contributes to the membrane potential.
D) ionizes sodium and potassium atoms.
E) is used to drive the transport of other molecules against a concentration gradient.
contributes to the membrane potential
Which of the following is most likely true of a protein that cotransports glucose and sodium ions into the intestinal cells of an animal?
A) The sodium ions are moving down their electrochemical gradient while glucose is moving up.
B) Glucose entering the cell along its concentration gradient provides energy for uptake of sodium ions against the electrochemical gradient.
C) Sodium ions can move down their electrochemical gradient through the cotransporter whether or not glucose is present outside the cell.
D) The cotransporter can also transport potassium ions.
E) A substance that blocks sodium ions from binding to the cotransport protein will also block the transport of glucose.
a substance that blocks sodium ions
The movement of potassium into an animal cell requires
A) low cellular concentrations of sodium.
B) high cellular concentrations of potassium.
C) an energy source such as ATP.
D) a cotransport protein.
E) a potassium channel protein.
an energy source such as atp
Ions diffuse across membranes through specific ion channels
A) down their chemical gradients.
B) down their concentration gradients.
C) down the electrical gradients.
D) down their electrochemical gradients.
E) down the osmotic potential gradients.
down their electrochemical gradients
Which of the following would increase the electrochemical potential across a membrane?
A) a chloride channel
B) a sucrose-proton cotransporter
C) a proton pump
D) a potassium channel
E) both a proton pump and a potassium channel
The sodium-potassium pump in animal cells requires cytoplasmic ATP to pump ions across the plasma membrane. When the proteins of the pump are first synthesized in the rough ER, what side of the ER membrane will the ATP binding site be on?
A) It will be on the cytoplasmic side of the ER.
B) It will be on the side facing the interior of the ER.
C) It could be facing in either direction because proteins are properly reoriented in the Golgi apparatus.
D) It doesn't matter, because the pump is not active in the ER.
it will be on the cytoplasmic side of the ER
Proton pumps are used in various ways by members of every domain of organisms: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. What does this most probably mean?
A) Proton pumps must have evolved before any living organisms were present on Earth.
B) Proton gradients across a membrane were used by cells that were the common ancestor of all three domains of life.
C) The high concentration of protons in the ancient atmosphere must have necessitated a pump mechanism.
D) Cells of each domain evolved proton pumps independently when oceans became more acidic.
E) Proton pumps are necessary to all cell membranes.
proton gradients across a membrane
Several epidemic microbial diseases of earlier centuries incurred high death rates because they resulted in severe dehydration due to vomiting and diarrhea. Today they are usually not fatal because we have developed which of the following?
A) antiviral medications that are efficient and work well with all viruses
B) antibiotics against the viruses in question
C) intravenous feeding techniques
D) medication to prevent blood loss
E) hydrating drinks that include high concentrations of salts and glucose
hydrating drinks that include
An organism with a cell wall would most likely be unable to take in materials through
C) active transport.
E) facilitated diffusion.
White blood cells engulf bacteria through what process?
E) receptor-mediated exocytosis
Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by which of the following?
A) defective LDL receptors on the cell membranes
B) poor attachment of the cholesterol to the extracellular matrix of cells
C) a poorly formed lipid bilayer that cannot incorporate cholesterol into cell membranes
D) inhibition of the cholesterol active transport system in red blood cells
E) a general lack of glycolipids in the blood cell membranes
defective LDL receptors on the cell membranes
The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that
A) pinocytosis brings only water molecules into the cell, but receptor-mediated endocytosis brings in other molecules as well.
B) pinocytosis increases the surface area of the plasma membrane whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis decreases the plasma membrane surface area.
C) pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity.
D) pinocytosis requires cellular energy, but receptor-mediated endocytosis does not.
E) pinocytosis can concentrate substances from the extracellular fluid, but receptor-mediated endocytosis cannot.
pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules
In receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor molecules initially project to the outside of the cell. Where do they end up after endocytosis?
A) on the outside of vesicles
B) on the inside surface of the cell membrane
C) on the inside surface of the vesicle
D) on the outer surface of the nucleus
E) on the ER
on the inside surface of the vesicle
A bacterium engulfed by a white blood cell through phagocytosis will be digested by enzymes contained in
C) Golgi vesicles.
E) secretory vesicles.
Which component is the peripheral protein?
Which component is cholesterol?
In the small airways of the lung, a thin layer of liquid is needed between the epithelial cells and the mucus layer in order for cilia to beat and move the mucus and trapped particles out of the lung. One hypothesis is that the volume of this airway surface liquid is regulated osmotically by transport of sodium and chloride ions across the epithelial cell membrane. How would the lack of a functional chloride channel in cystic fibrosis patients affect sodium ion transport and the volume of the airway surface liquid?
A) Sodium ion transport will increase; higher osmotic potential will increase airway surface liquid volume.
B) Sodium ion transport will increase; higher osmotic potential will decrease airway surface liquid volume.
C) Sodium ion transport will decrease; lower osmotic potential will decrease airway surface liquid volume.
D) Sodium ion transport will decrease; lower osmotic potential will increase the airway surface liquid volume.
E) Sodium ion transport will be unaffected; lack of chloride transport still reduces osmotic potential and decreases the airway surface liquid volume.
sodium ion transport will decrease, lower osmostic potential will decrease
A patient has had a serious accident and lost a lot of blood. In an attempt to replenish body fluids, distilled water-equal to the volume of blood lost-is transferred directly into one of his veins. What will be the most probable result of this transfusion?
A) It will have no unfavorable effect as long as the water is free of viruses and bacteria.
B) The patient's red blood cells will shrivel up because the blood fluid has become hypotonic compared to the cells.
C) The patient's red blood cells will swell because the blood fluid has become hypotonic compared to the cells.
D) The patient's red blood cells will shrivel up because the blood fluid has become hypertonic compared to the cells.
E) The patient's red blood cells will burst because the blood fluid has become hypertonic compared to the cells.
the patient's red blood cells will swell
In what way do the membranes of a eukaryotic cell vary?
A) Phospholipids are found only in certain membranes.
B) Certain proteins are unique to each membrane.
C) Only certain membranes of the cell are selectively permeable.
D) Only certain membranes are constructed from amphipathic molecules.
E) Some membranes have hydrophobic surfaces exposed to the cytoplasm, while others have hydrophilic surfaces facing the cytoplasm.
certain proteins are unique to each membrane
The solutions in the two arms of this U-tube are separated by a membrane that is permeable to water and glucose but not to sucrose. Side A is half-filled with a solution of 2 M sucrose and 1 M glucose. Side B is half-filled with 1 M sucrose and 2 M glucose. Initially, the liquid levels on both sides are equal.
Initially, in terms of tonicity, the solution in side A with respect to that in side B is
After the system reaches equilibrium, what changes are observed?
A) The molarity of sucrose and glucose are equal on both sides.
B) The molarity of glucose is higher in side A than in side B.
C) The water level is higher in side A than in side B.
D) The water level is unchanged.
E) The water level is higher in side B than in side A.
water level is higher in side a than b
The solutions in the arms of a U-tube are separated at the bottom of the tube by a selectively permeable membrane. The membrane is permeable to sodium chloride but not to glucose. Side A is filled with a solution of 0.4 M glucose and 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl), and side B is filled with a solution containing 0.8 M glucose and 0.4 M sodium chloride. Initially, the volume in both arms is the same.
At the beginning of the experiment,
A) side A is hypertonic to side B.
B) side A is hypotonic to side B.
C) side A is isotonic to side B.
D) side A is hypertonic to side B with respect to glucose.
E) side A is hypotonic to side B with respect to sodium chloride.
A is hypotonic to b
If you examine side A after three days, you should find
A) a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and glucose and an increase in the water level.
B) a decrease in the concentration of NaCl, an increase in water level, and no change in the concentration of glucose.
C) no net change in the system.
D) a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and a decrease in the water level.
E) no change in the concentration of NaCl and glucose and an increase in the water level.
a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and a decrease in the water level
Five dialysis bags, constructed from a semipermeable membrane that is impermeable to sucrose, were filled with various concentrations of sucrose and then placed in separate beakers containing an initial concentration of 0.6 M sucrose solution. At 10-minute intervals, the bags were massed (weighed) and the percent change in mass of each bag was graphed.
Which line in the graph represents the bag that contained a solution isotonic to the 0.6 M solution at the beginning of the experiment?
Which line in the graph represents the bag with the highest initial concentration of sucrose?
Which line or lines in the graph represent(s) bags that contain a solution that is hypertonic at 50 minutes?
A) A and B
E) D and E
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease in humans in which the CFTR protein, which functions as a chloride ion channel, is missing or nonfunctional in cell membranes.
The CFTR protein belongs to what category of membrane proteins?
A) gap junctions
C) electrogenic ion pumps
E) hydrophilic channels
electrogenic ion pumps
If the sodium ion concentration outside the cell increases, and the CFTR channel is open, in what direction will chloride ions and water move across the cell membrane?
A) Chloride ions will move out of the cell, and water will move into the cell.
B) Both chloride ions and water will move out of the cell.
C) Chloride ions will move into the cell, and water will move out of the cell.
D) Both chloride ions and water will move into the cell.
E) The movement of chloride ions and water molecules will not be affected by changes in sodium ion concentration outside the cell.
both chloride ions and water
Sets with similar terms
Biology Chapter 7
Campbell Biology Chapter 7 Test Preparation
Biology 111- Chapter 7
Other sets by this creator
easy notecards Chp 13
Chapter 7 American History
AP Bio Chpt 8
Other Quizlet sets
Health unit 1
microbiology exam 1
Louisiana Notary Exam
Care of Patients with Cardiac Problem