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BIO Chapter 9 Mastering
Terms in this set (66)
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work?
True or false? The potential energy in an ATP molecule is derived mainly from it's three phosphate groups.
Which process is not part of the cellular respiration pathway that produces large amounts of ATP in a cell?
-Electron transport chain
Which step of the cellular respiration pathway can take place in the absence of oxygen?
-Electron transport chain
Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?
Which stage of glucose metabolism produces the most ATP?
-Fermentation of pyruvate to lactate
-Electron transport and chemiosmosis
Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis
True or false? The reactions that generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration take place in the mitochondria.
Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons?
Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other?
Anion and Cation
Which of the following statements is true of the bonds in a water molecule?
Oxygen holds electrons more tightly than hydrogen does, and the net charge is zero.
Which of the following statements is not true of most cellular redox reactions?
A hydrogen atom is transferred to the atom that loses an electron.
What kind of bond is formed when lithium and fluorine combine to form lithium fluoride?
Gaseous hydrogen burns in the presence of oxygen to form water:
2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O + energy
Which molecule is oxidized and what kind of bond is formed?
Which of the following best describes the main purpose of the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration?
transforming the energy in glucose and related molecules in a chemical form that cells can use for work
In the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration, what is consumed and what is produced?
Glucose is consumed, and carbon dioxide is produced.
Which of the following describes the process of glycolysis?
It represents the first stage in the chemical oxidation of glucose by a cell.
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?
Which statement about the citric acid cycle is correct?
The last reaction in the citric acid cycle produces a product that is a substrate for the first reaction of the citric acid cycle.
The electrons stripped from glucose in cellular respiration end up in which compound?
In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?
to function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain
Which statement best explains why more ATP is made per molecule of NADH than per molecule of FADH2?
Fewer protons are pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane when FADH2 is the electron donor than when NADH is the electron donor.
Which one of the following statements about the redox reactions of the electron transport chain is correct?
The redox reactions of the electron transport chain are directly coupled to the movement of protons across a membrane.
In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.
lactate and NAD+
In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized.
In the absence of oxygen, what is the net gain of ATP for each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis?
In most cells, not all of the carbon compounds that participate in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle are converted to carbon dioxide by cellular respiration. What happens to the carbon in these compounds that does not end up as CO2?
The carbon compounds re removed from these processes to serve as building blocks for other complex molecules.
What is the oxidizing agent in the following reaction? Pyruvate + NADH + H+ → Lactate + NAD+
The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the
H+ concentration across the membrane holding ATP synthase
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?
In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions...
provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is
When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs?
The Ph of the matrix increases
Most CO2 from catabolism is released during
The citric acid cycle
Which of the following statements about the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP is correct?
The chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP requires that the electron transport in the inner mitochondrial membrane be coupled to proton transport across the same membrane.
The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction
loses electrons and loses potential energy.
Which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.
When a glucose molecule loses a hydrogen atom as the result of an oxidation-reduction reaction, the molecule becomes...
Which of the following statements describes NAD+?
NAD+ is reduced to NADH during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle.
Where does glycolysis take place in eukaryotic cells?
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
Why are carbohydrates and fats considered high energy foods?
They have a lot of electrons associated with hydrogen.
Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent?
What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules?
A molecule that is phosphorylated
has an increased chemical potential energy; it is primed to do cellular work.
Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase?
It uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP.
For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (see the figure), what is the total number of NADH + FADH2 molecules produced?
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration?
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
How many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?
During cellular respiration, acetyl CoA accumulates in which location?
Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ into which location in eukaryotic cells?
mitochondrial intermembrane system
What is proton-motive force?
the force provided by a transmembrane hydrogen ion gradient
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose (C6H12O6) in aerobic cellular respiration?
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?
mitochondrial inner membrane
Which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water?
oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?
One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to
oxidize NADH to NAD+
Which of the following normally occurs regardless of whether or not oxygen (O2) is present?
Which metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation?
What is the purpose of beta oxidation in respiration?
breakdown of fatty acids
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