The Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression
The following flashcards include significant terms, places, persons, legislation, and events from the period beginning with the 1920s through the end of the Great Depression.
Terms in this set (47)
American businessman whose assembly line system produced more affordable automobiles according to the Progressives' scientific management model; this manufacturer was also a pioneer in employment strategies, reducing employee hours and increasing pay in order to enlarge his customer base to include employees.
Condition where the economy is sustained by the production and subsequent purchase of goods, especially luxury items; increased leisure time, advertising, and alternative purchasing options (credit, installments, etc.) often contribute to this.
Financially risky investment practice that involves paying only a small percentage of a stock's price at purchase; once the stock is sold, the outstanding purchase amount is subtracted from the profit of the sale.
Legislation proposed in 1927 to sell surplus crops on the world market in order to raise prices; vetoed by President Coolidge in both 1927 and 1928.
Employment theory that emphasizes the right of the employer to hire employees without union interference.
The practice of employers offering significant benefits to employees (healthcare, profit sharing, etc.) in order to discourage labor union activity.
Strike occurring at the Loray Mill in Gastonia, NC in 1929; when the National Guard entered the workers' tent city to disperse the strike, the Gastonia chief-of-police was killed, resulting in a reciprocal attack on the union party headquarters by angry vigilantes
Harding's secretary of treasury who proposed economic policy that severely limited taxation on the wealthy and eased business restrictions; he also created a number of accountability programs to reduce federal spending and raised the tariff to encourage growth of American industry.
1924 legislation that extended loans to Germany so that Germany could make reparations payments to the Allied Powers; the Allies could then pay outstanding debts to the United States.
Graft scheme ran by Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall during the Harding administration; Fall sold U.S. navy oil reserves to petroleum companies, amassing nearly $400,000 in bribes before being jailed.
1928 legislation drafted by Secretary of State Frank Kellogg and French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand that outlawed war.
Washington Naval Disarmament Conference
Meeting between a number of world powers in 1921-1922 that resulting in significant reduction in both naval production and the size of naval warships/arms.
Limitations on the number of immigrants permitted in the United States and exemplified in the Emergency Immigration Act of 1921 and the Immigration Act of 1924; these limitations targeted central and eastern Europeans in particular due to fears of a spreading communist influence.
New Ku Klux Klan
Nativist group that advocated "100 percent Americanism" and opposed non-Protestant whites, including Catholics, Jews, and all ethnic/racial minorities; member claims of support for honest government were undermined by the bribes, violence, and other criminal activity in which the group engaged.
1919 legislation that allowed the federal government to enforce the provisions of the 18th Amendment.
Criminal who capitalized on Prohibition to profit from the sale of "bootleg" liquor, a practice that was folded into other criminal enterprises (gambling, prostitution, etc.); convicted of tax evasion in 1931.
Religious movement that rejected scientific claims that conflicted with religious explanations for the nature of the world.
Court case disputing a Tennessee state law that prohibited the teaching of evolution in schools; Clarence Darrow argued for the defendant, John Scopes, while William Jennings Bryan represented the prosecution; Scopes was found guilty, though his $100 fee was waived by the Tennessee Supreme Court.
"The Jazz Singer"
Often credited as being the first major motion picture to include audio recorded on the film; released in 1927 starring Al Jolson.
Completed the first non-stop, solo Atlantic flight in 1927 while flying the "Spirit of St. Louis"; inspired Americans to rise above the pessimism following the Great War.
Term designating particular women that challenged societal conventions through provocative dress, public dancing, shorter hairstyles, and use of make-up; represented a tendency of 1920s women to embrace new freedoms in light of gaining the right to vote.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Writer of "The Great Gatsby," published in 1925, a novel that inverted the supposed progress and success of the 1920s by instead emphasizing the emptiness and despair active beneath the decade's economic prosperity; such themes were common in both literature and art in the period.
Period in which black culture and intellectualism flourished and began to have a profound influence on American society in general; centered around Harlem in New York City.
Jamaican immigrant that advocated black separatism and Pan-Africanism in the form of movement of blacks to Africa and worldwide black cultural solidarity, respectively; founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and was deported to Jamaica after being questionably charged with mail fraud.
A musical blend of ragtime and blues, originating in the South, that was largely based on improvisation; equally popular among blacks and whites.
Concept that blacks would no longer submit to racial oppression as "second class citizens" and would adopt new roles in society; popular in black literature and art.
Poet who emphasized and celebrated the unique spirit of blacks.
October 29, 1929, the day of the Great Crash in the U.S. stock market that marked the beginning of the Great Depression; typical market contraction was intensified by massive agricultural debt, wild investor speculation, excessive loaning as part of the Dawes Plan, and an extremely uneven distribution of wealth.
Legislation in 1930 that raised the tariff to exceptionally high levels; this essentially closed the U.S. to foreign markets, which responded with their own high protective tariffs, and furthered worldwide economic depression.
Massive dust storm in the Midwest region of the U.S. resulting from a combination of severe drought and newer farming techniques that stripped topsoil of grasses.
Depression-era policy promoted by Herbert Hoover that encouraged American businesses to maintain current employment and wage levels and advised local governments to donate to relief charities; largely failed because most businesses owners were unable to look beyond their own immediate self-interest.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Organization formed by Hoover in 1932 to provide loans to banks, railroads, and large businesses in order to encourage hiring, production, and increased consumption.
Group of World War I veterans seeking early payment of a promised service bonus; after Hoover vetoed a decision by Congress to make payment, the group staged a 20,000 man protest in Washington D.C. in 1932; mishandling of the protest by Douglas MacArthur and George S. Patton practically ruined Hoover's political reputation.
Bipartisan group formed by Franklin Roosevelt to attempt to resolve the issues of the Great Depression; also included first female cabinet member Frances Perkins, secretary of labor.
Emergency Banking Bill
Passed in 1933, this legislation gave the president broad powers over banks, including a four day "bank holiday" that allowed banks to consolidate accounts.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Formed in 1933 to insure bank deposits for up to $5,000.
First New Deal
Term describing Roosevelt's first one hundred days in office; Roosevelt's goals were to provide relief, recovery, and reform.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
1933 legislation with the objective of slowing overproduction by paying farmers not to plant some land and to kill livestock.
Tennessee Valley Authority
Organization created in 1933 to create jobs and provide power to exceedingly poor residents of southern Tennessee.
Public Works Administration
1933 government organization that provided jobs to struggling Americans through the construction of bridges, dams, power plants, and government buildings.
Term collectively describing Roosevelt's relief programs that extended greater control to the government in improving the lives of Depression-era Americans; most organizations were acronyms, lending this term its name.
Social Security Act
1935 legislation that created a pension system for retirees and several forms of work insurance and disability protection.
1935 legislation that recognized the right of collective bargaining for employees, forcing businesses to hear union complaints.
Fair Labor Standards Act
1938 legislation that established a minimum wage, maximum workweek, and outlawed child labor.
Theory stemming from British economist John Maynard Keynes; advocated deficit spending through public works programs to stimulate economic growth.
Attempt by Roosevelt in 1937 to expand the Supreme Court's membership from nine justices to fifteen; Roosevelt's goal was to reduce court opposition to New Deal policies.
New Deal Coalition
Refers to a shift in voting patterns where blacks, blue-collar workers, and midwestern farmers began to vote Democrat; largely the result of Roosevelt's New Deal policies.
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