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71 terms

Chapter 7 - Operating Systems and Utility Programs

Vocabulary from Discovering Computers Fundamentals 2011 Edition
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administrator account
Computer account held by computer and network administrators that enables them to access all files and programs on the computer or network, install programs, and specify settings that affect all users on a computer or network
adware remover
Program that detects and deletes adware from a user's computer
anti-spam program
Program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches a user's inbox
antivirus program
Program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files
automatic update
Operating system feature that automatically provides updates to a program
backup utility
Utility program that allows users to copy, or back up, selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium, such as another hard disk, optical disc, USB flash drive, or tape
BIOS
Basic input/output system; firmware that contains the computer's startup instructions
boot disk
Special disk that contains a few system files capable of starting a computer, which is used when the computer cannot boot from its hard disk
boot drive
Drive from which a personal computer boots (starts)
booting
Process of starting or restarting a computer
buffer
Segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device.
cold boot
Process of turning on a computer that has been powered off completely
command-line interface
Type of user interface in which a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys or key combinations) to enter data and instructions
defragmenting
Reorganizing a disk so that the files are stored in contiguous sectors, thus speeding up disk access and the performance of the entire computer
disc burning software
Utility program that writes text, graphics, audio, and video files to a recordable or rewriteable CD, DVD, or Blu-ray Disc
disk defragmenter
Utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer's hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster
driver
Small program that tells an operating system how to communicate with a specific device
embedded operating system
The operating system that resides on a ROM chip inside most PDAs and small devices
file compression utility
Utility program that shrinks the size of a file(s), so that the file takes up less storage space than the original file
file manager
Utility that performs functions related to file management
folder
Specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents
graphical user interface (GUI)
Type of user interface that allows a user to interact with software using text, graphics, and visual images, such as icons
hibernate
Operating system function that saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer
image viewer
Utility that allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file, such as a photo
Linux
Popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating system
log on
To access a computer or network as a user
Mac OS X
Multitasking operating system that is the latest version of the Macintosh operating system
Macintosh operating system
Operating system for Apple's Macintosh computer
media player
Utility program that allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files
memory management
Operating system activity that optimizes the use of random access memory (RAM)
operating system (OS)
Set of programs that coordinates all the activities among computer hardware devices
password
Private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources
performance monitor
Operating system program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices
personal computer
Computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself and contains a processor, memory, and one or more input and output devices, and storage devices
personal firewall
Utility program that detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions
phishing
Scam in which a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and/or financial information
phishing filter
Program that warns or blocks you from potentially fraudulent or suspicious Web sites
Plug and Play
Technology that gives a computer the capability to configure adapter cards and other peripherals automatically as a user installs them
pop-up blocker
Filtering program that stops pop-up ads from displaying on Web pages
queue
Lineup of multiple print jobs within a buffer
recovery disk
Special disk that contains a few system files capable of restarting a computer, which is used when the computer cannot boot from its hard disk
restore utility
Program that reverses the backup process and returns backed up files to their original form
screen saver
Utility program that causes a display device's screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no mouse activity occurs for a specified time
search utility
Program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify
server operating system
Operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network
service pack
Free downloadable software updates provided by the software manufacturer to users who have registered and/or activated their software
shortcut
Icon on the desktop that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file
sleep mode
Operating system function that saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state
spam
Unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroups posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once
spooling
Operating system process that sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer
spyware remover
Program that detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs on a user's computer
stand-alone operating system
Complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device
system software
Programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices
Trojan horse
Malicious-logic program named after the Greek myth that hides within or looks like a legitimate program
uncompress
To restore a compressed, or zipped, file to its original form
uninstaller
Utility program that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files
UNIX
Multitasking operating system that now is available for most computers of all sizes
user ID
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that identifies a specific user
user interface
The portion of software that defines how a user interacts with a computer, including how the user enters data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen
user name
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that identifies a specific user
utility
Type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs
utility program
Type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs
virtual memory
A portion of a storage medium, usually the hard disk, that the operating system allocates to function as additional RAM
virus
Potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without a user's knowledge or permission
warm boot
Process of using the operating system to restart a computer
Web filtering software
Program that restricts access to certain material on the Web
Windows 7
Microsoft's fastest, most efficient operating system to date, offering quicker program start up, built-in diagnostics, automatic recovery, improved security, enhanced searching and organizing capabilities, and an easy-to-use interface
Windows Aero
Interface for computers with more than 1 GB of RAM that provides an enhanced visual look, additional navigation options, and animation
Windows ReadyBoost
Windows feature that can allocate available storage space on removable flash memory devices as additional cache
worm
Malicious-logic program that copies itself repeatedly, using up system resources and possibly shutting down the system
zipped files
Type of compressed files that usually have a .zip extension